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Table of Contents

  1. Preamble
  2. CHAPTER 1. THE CONSTITUTION
  3. CHAPTER 2. TERRITORIES OF GHANA
  4. CHAPTER 3. CITIZENSHIP
  5. CHAPTER 4. THE LAWS OF GHANA
  6. CHAPTER 5. FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
  7. Part I. General
  8. Part II. Emergency Powers
  9. Part III. Protection of Rights by the Courts
  10. CHAPTER 6. THE DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY
  11. CHAPTER 7. REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE
  12. Part I. Right to Vote
  13. Part II. Electoral Commission
  14. Part III. Political Parties
  15. CHAPTER 8. THE EXECUTIVE
  16. Part I. The President
  17. Part II. International Relations
  18. Part III. The Cabinet
  19. Part IV. The National Security Council
  20. Part V. National Development Planning Commission
  21. Part VI. The Attorney-General
  22. CHAPTER 9. THE COUNCIL OF STATE
  23. CHAPTER 10. THE LEGISLATURE
  24. Part I. Composition of Parliament
  25. Part II. Procedure in Parliament
  26. Part III. Summoning, Dissolution, etc
  27. Part IV. Privileges and Immunities
  28. Part V. Contempt of Parliament
  29. Part VI. The Parliamentary Service
  30. CHAPTER 11. THE JUDICIARY
  31. Part I. General
  32. Part II. The Supreme Court
  33. Part III. The Court of Appeal
  34. Part IV. The High Court
  35. Part V. Regional Tribunals
  36. Part VI. Appointment, retirement and removal of Justices of Superior Courts and chairmen and other members of Regional Tribunals
  37. Part VII. Appointment, retirement and removal of Judicial Officers
  38. Part VIII. The Judicial Council
  39. Part IX. Miscellaneous
  40. CHAPTER 12. FREEDOM AND INDEPENDENCE OF THE MEDIA
  41. CHAPTER 13. FINANCE
  42. Part I. General
  43. Part II. Statistical Service
  44. Part III. The Auditor-General
  45. Part IV. The Audit Service
  46. CHAPTER 14. THE PUBLIC SERVICES
  47. CHAPTER 15. THE POLICE SERVICE
  48. CHAPTER 16. THE PRISONS SERVICE
  49. CHAPTER 17. THE ARMED FORCES OF GHANA
  50. CHAPTER 18. COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE
  51. CHAPTER 19. NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR CIVIC EDUCATION
  52. CHAPTER 20. DECENTRALIZATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  53. CHAPTER 21. LANDS AND NATURAL RESOURCES
  54. Part I. Public Lands
  55. Part II. Lands Commission
  56. Part III. Ownership of land by Non-Citizens
  57. Part IV. Stool and Skin Lands and Property
  58. Part V. Protecting Natural Resources
  59. CHAPTER 22. CHIEFTAINCY
  60. CHAPTER 23. COMMISSIONS OF INQUIRY
  61. CHAPTER 24. CODE OF CONDUCT FOR PUBLIC OFFICERS
  62. CHAPTER 25. AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
  63. CHAPTER 26. MISCELLANEOUS
  64. FIRST SCHEDULE. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
  65. PART I. FIRST PRESIDENT
  66. PART II. FIRST PARLIAMENT
  67. PART III. THE JUDICIARY
  68. PART IV. MISCELLANEOUS
  69. SECOND SCHEDULE. FORMS OF OATH

Constitution of Ghana (1992, rev. 1996)

1The following text is from the Constitute Project, who through a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, has generously made this content available for use for noncommercial purposes. Follow (right-click) the links and read the annotation to learn more. 1

2


3Preamble

4IN THE NAME OF THE ALMIGHTY GOD

5We the People of Ghana,

6IN EXERCISE of our natural and inalienable right to establish a framework of government which shall secure for ourselves and posterity the blessings of liberty, equality of opportunity and prosperity;

7IN A SPIRIT of friendship and peace with all peoples of the world;

8AND IN SOLEMN declaration and affirmation of our commitment to;

9Freedom, Justice, Probity and Accountability,

10The Principle that all powers of Government spring from the Sovereign Will of the People;

11The Principle of Universal Adult Suffrage;

12The Rule of Law;

13The protection and preservation of Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms, Unity and Stability for our Nation;

14DO HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

15CHAPTER 1. THE CONSTITUTION

161. SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION

171. The Sovereignty of Ghana resides in the people of Ghana in whose name and for whose welfare the powers of government are to be exercised in the manner and within the limits laid down in this Constitution.

182. This Constitution shall be the supreme law of Ghana and any other law found to be inconsistent with any provision of this Constitution shall. to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.

192. ENFORCEMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

201. A person who alleges that –

21 a.an enactment or anything contained in or done under the authority of that or any other enactment; or

22 b.any act or omission of any person,

23is inconsistent with, or is in contravention of a provision of this Constitution, may bring an action in the Supreme Court for a declaration to that effect.

242. The Supreme Court shall, for the purposes of a declaration under clause (1) of this article, make such orders and give such directions as it may consider appropriate for giving effect, or enabling effect to be given, to the declaration so made.

253. Any person or group of persons to whom an order or direction is addressed under clause (2) of this article by the Supreme Court, shall duly obey and carry out the terms of the order or direction.

264. Failure to obey or carry out the terms of an order or direction made or given under clause (2) of this article constitutes a high crime under this Constitution and shall, in the case of the President or the Vice-President, constitute a ground for removal from office under this Constitution.

275. A person convicted of a high crime under clause (4) of this article shall-

28 a.be liable to imprisonment not exceeding ten years without the option of a fine; and

29 b.not be eligible for election, or for appointment, to any public office for ten years beginning with the date of the expiration of the term of imprisonment.

303. DEFENCE OF THE CONSTITUTION

311. Parliament shall have no power to enact a law establishing a one-party state.

322. Any activity of a person or group of persons which suppresses or seeks to suppress the lawful political activity of any other person or any class of persons, or persons generally is unlawful.

333. Any person who-

34 a.by himself or in concert with others by any violent or other unlawful means, suspends or overthrows or abrogates this Constitution or any part of it, or attempts to do any such act; or

35 b.aids and abets in any manner any person referred to in paragraph (a) of this clause;

36commits the offence of high treason and shall, upon conviction, be sentenced to suffer death.

374. All citizens of Ghana shall have the right and duty at all times –

38 a.to defend this Constitution, and in particular, to resist any person or group of persons seeking to commit any of the acts referred to in clause (3) of this article; and

39 b.to do all in their power to restore this Constitution after it has been suspended, overthrown, or abrogated as referred to in clause (3) of this article.

405. Any person or group of persons who suppresses or resists the suspension, overthrow or abrogation of this Constitution as referred to in clause (3) of this article, commits no offence.

416. Where a person referred to in clause (5) of this article is punished for any act done under that clause, the punishment shall, on the restoration of this Constitution, be taken to be void from the time it was imposed and he shall, from that time, be taken to be absolved from all liabilities arising out of the punishment.

427. The Supreme Court shall, on application by or on behalf of a person who has suffered any punishment or loss to which clause (6) of this article relates, award him adequate compensation, which shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund, in respect of any suffering or loss incurred as a result of the punishment.

43CHAPTER 2. TERRITORIES OF GHANA

444. TERRITORIES OF GHANA

451. The sovereign State of Ghana is a unitary republic consisting of those territories comprised in the regions which, immediately before the coming into force of this Constitution, existed in Ghana, including the territorial sea and the air space.

462. Parliament may by law provide for the delimitation of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of Ghana.

475. CREATION, ALTERATION OR MERGER OF REGIONS

481. Subject to the provisions of this article, the President may, by constitutional instrument-

49 a.create a new region;

50 b.alter the boundaries of a region; or

51 c.provide for the merger of two or more regions.

522. If the President, upon a petition being presented to him and, on the advice of the Council of State, is satisfied that there is a substantial demand for-

53 a.the creation of a new region;

54 b.the alteration of the boundaries of a region, whether or not the alteration involves the creation of a new region; or

55 c.the merger of any two or more regions,

56he shall, acting in accordance with the advice of the Council of State, appoint a commission of inquiry to inquire into the demand and to make recommendations on all the factors involved in the creation, alteration or merger.

573. If, notwithstanding that a petition has not been presented to him, the President is, on the advice of the Council of State, satisfied that the need has arisen for taking any of the steps referred to in paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of clause (1) of this article, he may, acting in accordance with the advice of the Council of State, appoint a commission of inquiry to inquire into the need and to make recommendations on all the factors involved in the creation, alteration or merger.

584. Where a commission of inquiry appointed under clause (2) or (3) of this article finds that there is the need and a substantial demand for the creation, alteration or merger referred to in either of those clauses, it shall recommend to the President that a referendum be held, specifying the issues to be determined by the referendum and the places where the referendum should be held.

595. The President shall refer the recommendations to the Electoral Commission, and the referendum shall be held in a manner prescribed by the Electoral Commission.

606. An issue referred for determination by referendum under clauses (4) and (5) shall not be taken to be determined by the referendum unless at least fifty per cent of the persons entitled to vote cast their votes at the referendum, and of the votes cast at least eighty per cent were cast in favour of that issue.

617. Where a referendum involves the merger of two or more regions, the issue shall not be taken to be determined unless at least sixty percent of the persons entitled to vote at the referendum in each such region voted in favour of the merger of the two or more regions; and accordingly, clause (6) of this article shall not apply to the referendum.

628. The President shall, under clause (1) of this article, and acting in accordance with the results of the referendum held under clauses (4) and (5) of this article, issue a constitutional instrument giving effect, or enabling effect to be given, to the results.

63CHAPTER 3. CITIZENSHIP

646. CITIZENSHIP OF GHANA

651. Every person who, on the coming into force of this Constitution, is a citizen of Ghana by-law shall continue to be a citizen of Ghana.

662. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, a person born in or outside Ghana after the coming into force of this Constitution, shall become a citizen of Ghana at the date of his birth if either of his parents or grandparents is or was a citizen of Ghana.

673. A child of not more than seven years of age found in Ghana whose parents are not known shall be presumed to be a citizen of Ghana by birth.

684. A child of not more than sixteen years of age neither of whose parents is a citizen of Ghana who is adopted by a citizen of Ghana shall, by virtue of the adoption, be a citizen of Ghana.

697. PERSONS ENTITLED TO BE REGISTERED AS CITIZENS

701. A woman married to a man who is a citizen of Ghana or a man married to a woman who is a citizen of Ghana may, upon making an application in the manner prescribed by Parliament, be registered as a citizen of Ghana.

712. Clause (1) of this article applies also to a person who was married to a person who, but for his or her death, would have continued to be a citizen of Ghana under clause (1) of article 6 of this Constitution.

723. Where the marriage of a woman is annulled after she has been registered as a citizen of Ghana under clause (1) of this article, she shall, unless she renounces that citizenship, continue to be a citizen of Ghana.

734. Any child of a marriage of a woman registered as a citizen of Ghana under clause (1) of this article to which clause (3) of this article applies, shall continue to be a citizen of Ghana unless he renounces that citizenship.

745. Where upon an application by a man, for registration under clause (1) of this article, it appears to the authority responsible for the registration that a marriage has been entered into primarily with a view to obtaining the registration, the authority may request the applicant to satisfy him that the marriage was entered into in good-faith; and the authority may only effect the registration upon being so satisfied.

756. In the case of a man seeking registration, clause (1) of this article applies only if the applicant permanently resides in Ghana.

768. DUAL CITIZENSHIP

771. A citizen of Ghana may hold the citizenship of any other country in addition to his citizenship of Ghana.

782. Without prejudice to article 94(2)(a) of the Constitution, no citizen of Ghana shall qualify to be appointed as a holder of any office specified in this clause if he holds the citizenship of any other country in addition to his citizenship of Ghana-

79 a.Ambassador of High Commissioner;

80 b.Secretary to the Cabinet;

81 c.Chief of Defence Staff or any Service Chief;

82 d.Inspector-General of Police;

83 e.Commissioner, Customs, Excise and Preventive Service;

84 f.Director of Immigration Service; and

85 g.any office specified by an Act of Parliament.

863. Where the law of a country requires a person who marries a citizen of that country to renounce the citizenship of his own country by virtue of that marriage, a citizen of Ghana who is deprived of his citizenship by virtue of that marriage shall, on the dissolution of that marriage, become citizen of Ghana.

879. CITIZENSHIP LAWS BY PARLIAMENT

881. Parliament may make provision for the acquisition of citizenship of Ghana by persons who are not eligible to become citizens of Ghana under the provisions of this Constitution.

892. Except as otherwise provided in article 7 of this Constitution, a person shall not be registered as a citizen of Ghana unless at the time of his application for registration he is able to speak and understand an indigenous language of Ghana.

903. The High Court may, on an application made for the purpose by the Attorney-General, deprive a person who is a citizen of Ghana, otherwise than by birth, of that citizenship on the ground-

91 a.that the activities of that person are inimical to the security of the State or prejudicial to public morality or the public interest; or

92 b.that the citizenship was acquired by fraud, misrepresentation or any other improper or irregular practice.

934. There shall be published in the Gazette by the appropriate authority and within three months after the application or the registration, as the case may be, the name, particulars and other details of a person who, under this article applies to be registered as a citizen of Ghana or has been registered as a citizen of Ghana.

945. Parliament may make provision by Act of Parliament for-

95 a.the renunciation by any person of his citizenship of Ghana;

96 b.the circumstances in which a person may acquire citizenship of Ghana or cease to be a citizen of Ghana.

9710. INTERPRETATION

981. A reference in this Chapter to the citizenship of the parent of a person at the time of the birth of that person shall, in relation to a person born, after the death of the parent, be construed as a reference to the citizenship of the parent at the time of the parent's death.

992. For the purposes of clause (1) of this article, where the death occurred before the coming into force of this Constitution, the citizenship that the parent would have had if he or she had died on the coining into force of this Constitution shall be deemed to be his or her citizenship at the time of his or her death.

100CHAPTER 4. THE LAWS OF GHANA

10111. THE LAWS OF GHANA

1021. The laws of Ghana shall comprise-

103 a.this Constitution;

104 b.enactments made by or under the authority of the Parliament established by this Constitution;

105 c.any Orders, Rules and Regulations made by any person or authority under a power conferred by this Constitution;

106 d.the existing law; and

107 e.the common law.

1082. The common law of Ghana shall comprise the rules of law generally known as the common law, the rules generally known as the doctrines of equity and the rules of customary law including those determined by the Superior Court of Judicature.

1093. For the purposes of this article, "customary law" means the rules of law which by custom are applicable to particular communities in Ghana.

1104. The existing law shall, except as otherwise provided in clause (1) of this article, comprise the written and unwritten laws of Ghana as they existed immediately before the coming. into force of this Constitution, and any Act. Decree, Law or statutory instrument issued or made before that date, which is to come into force on or after that date.

1115. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the existing law shall not be affected by the coming into force of this Constitution.

1126. The existing law shall be construed with any modifications, adaptations, qualifications and exceptions necessary to bring it into conformity with the provisions of this Constitution, or otherwise to give effect to, or enable effect tote given to, any changes effected by this Constitution.

1137. Any Order, Rule or Regulation made by a person or authority under a power conferred by this Constitution or any other law shall-

114 a.be laid before Parliament;

115 b.be published in the Gazette on the day it is laid before Parliament; and

116 c.come into force at the expiration of twenty-one sitting days after being so laid unless Parliament, before the expiration of the twenty-one days, annuls the Order, Rule or Regulation by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all the members of Parliament.

117CHAPTER 5. FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

118Part I. General

11912. PROTECTION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

1201. The fundamental human rights and freedoms enshrined in this Chapter shall be respected and upheld by the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary and all other organs of government and its agencies and, where applicable to them, by all natural and legal persons in Ghana, and shall be enforceable by the courts as provided for in this Constitution.

1212. Every person in Ghana, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinion, colour, religion, creed or gender shall be entitled to the fundamental human rights and freedoms of the individual contained in this Chapter but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest.

12213. PROTECTION OF RIGHT TO LIFE

1231. No person shall be deprived of his life intentionally except in the exercise of the execution of a sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence under the laws of Ghana of which he has been convicted.

1242. A person shall not be held to have deprived another person of his life in contravention of clause (1) of this article if that other person dies as the result of a lawful act. of war or if that other person dies as the result of the use of force to such an. extent as is reasonably justifiable in the particular circumstances-

125 a.for the defence of any person from violence or for the defence of property; or

126 b.in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained; or,

127 c.for the purposes of suppressing a riot, insurrection or mutiny; or

128 d.in order to prevent the commission of a crime by that person.

12914. PROTECTION OF PERSONAL LIBERTY

1301. Every person shall be entitled to his personal liberty and no person shall be deprived of his personal liberty except in the following cases and in accordance with procedure permitted by law-

131 a.in execution of a sentence or order of a court in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted; or

132 b.in execution of an order of a court punishing him for contempt of court; or

133 c.for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of an order of a court; or

134 d.in the case of a person suffering from an infectious or contagious disease, a person of unsound mind, a person addicted to drugs or alcohol or a vagrant, for the purpose of his care or treatment or the protection of the community; or

135 e.for the purpose of the education or welfare of a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years; or

136 f.for the purpose of preventing the unlawful entry of that person into Ghana, or of effecting the expulsion, extradition or other lawful removal of that person from Ghana or for the purpose of restricting that person while he is being lawfully conveyed through Ghana in the course of his extradition or removal from one country to another; or

137 g.upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed or being about to commit a criminal offence under the laws of Ghana.

1382. A person who is arrested, restricted or detained shall be informed immediately, in a language that he understands, of the reasons for his arrest, restriction or detention and of his right to a lawyer of his choice.

1393. A person who is arrested, restricted or detained-

140 a.for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of an order of a court; or

141 b.upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed or being about to commit a criminal offence under the laws of Ghana, and who is not released,

142shall be brought before a court within forty-eight hours after the arrest, restriction or detention.

1434. Where a person arrested, restricted or detained under paragraph (a) or (b) of clause (3) of this article is not tried within a reasonable time, then, without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against him, he shall be released either unconditionally or upon reasonable conditions, including in particular, conditions reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears at a later date for trial or for proceedings preliminary to trial.

1445. A person who is unlawfully arrested, restricted or detained by any other person shall be entitled to compensation from that other person.

1456. Where a person is convicted and sentenced to a term of imprisonment for an offence, any period he has spent in lawful custody in respect of that offence before the completion of his trial shall be taken into account in imposing the term of imprisonment.

1467. Where a person who has served the whole or a part of his sentence is acquitted on appeal by a court, other than the Supreme Court, the court may certify to the Supreme Court that the person acquitted be paid compensation; and the Supreme Court may, upon examination of all the facts and the certificate of the court concerned, award such compensation as it may think fit; or, where the acquittal is by the Supreme Court, it may order compensation to be paid to the person acquitted.

14715. RESPECT FOR HUMAN DIGNITY

1481. The dignity of all persons shall be inviolable.

1492. No person shall, whether or not he is arrested, restricted or detained, be subjected to-

150 a.torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;

151 b.any other condition that detracts or is likely to detract from his dignity and worth as a human being.

1523. A person who has not been convicted of a criminal offence shall not be treated as a convicted person and shall be kept separately from convicted persons.

1534. A juvenile offender who is kept in lawful custody or detention shall be kept separately from an adult offender.

15416. PROTECTION FROM SLAVERY AND FORCED LABOUR

1551. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.

1562. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.

1573. For the purposes of this article, "forced labour" does not include-

158 a.any labour required as a result of a sentence or order of a court; or

159 b.any labour required of a member of a disciplined force or service as his duties or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to a service as a member of the Armed Forces of Ghana, any labour which that person is required by law to perform in place of such service; or

160 c.any labour required during any period when Ghana is at war or in the event of an emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requirement of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period for the purposes of dealing with the situation; or

161 d.any labour reasonably, required as part of normal communal or other civic obligations.

16217. EQUALITY AND FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION

1631. All persons shall be equal before the law.

1642. A person shall not be discriminated against on grounds of gender, race, colour, ethnic origin, religion, creed or social or economic status.

1653. For the purposes of this article, "discriminate" means to give different treatment to different persons attributable only or mainly to their respective descriptions by raw, place of origin, political opinions, colour, gender, occupation, religion or creed, whereby persons of one description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another description are not made subject or are granted privileges or advantages which are not granted to persons of another description.

1664. Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from enacting laws that are reasonably necessary to provide-

167 a.for the implementation of policies and programmes aimed at redressing social, economic or educational imbalance in the Ghanaian society;

168 b.for matters relating to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death or other matters of personal law;

169 c.for the imposition of restrictions on the acquisition of land by persons who are not citizens of Ghana or on the political and economic activities of such persons and for other matters relating to such persons; or

170 d.for making different provision for different communities having regard to their special circumstances not being provision which is inconsistent with the spirit of this Constitution.

1715. Nothing shall be taken to be inconsistent with this article which is allowed to be done under any provision of this Chapter.

17218. PROTECTION OF PRIVACY OF HOME AND OTHER PROPERTY

1731. Every person has the right to own property either alone or in association with others.

1742. No person shall be subjected to interference with the privacy of his home, property, correspondence or communication except in accordance with law and as may be necessary in a free and democratic society for public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the protection of health or morals, for the prevention of disorder or crime or for the protection of the rights or freedoms of others.

17519. FAIR TRIAL

1761. A person charged with a criminal offence shall be given a fair hearing within a reasonable time by a court.

1772. A person charged with a criminal offence shall-

178 a.in the case of an offence other than high treason or treason, the punishment for which is death or imprisonment for life, be tried by a judge and jury and-

179 i.where the punishment is death, the verdict of the jury shall be unanimous; and

180 ii.in the case of life imprisonment, the verdict of the jury shall be by such majority as Parliament may by law prescribe;

181 b.in the case of an offence triable by a Regional Tribunal the penalty for which is death, the decision of the Chairman and the other panel members shall be unanimous;

182 c.be presumed to be innocent until he is proved or has pleaded guilty;

183 d.be informed immediately in a language that he understands, and in detail, of the nature of the offence charged;

184 e.be given adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;

185 f.be permitted to defend himself before the court in person or by a lawyer of his choice;

186 g.be afforded facilities to examine, in person or by his lawyer, the witnesses called by the prosecution before the court, and to obtain the attendance and carry out the examination of witnesses to testify on the same conditions as those applicable to witnesses called by the prosecution;

187 h.be permitted to have, without payment by him, the assistance of an interpreter where he cannot understand the language used at the trial; and

188 i.in the case of the offence of high treason or treason, be tried by the High Court duly constituted by three Justices of that Court and the decision of the Justices shall be unanimous.

1893. The trial of a person charged with a criminal offence shall take place in his presence unless-

190 a.he refuses to appear before the court for the trial to be conducted in his presence after he has been duly notified of the trial; or

191 b.he conducts himself in such a manner as to render the continuation of the proceedings in his presence impracticable and the court orders him to be removed for the trial to proceed in his absence.

1924. Whenever a person is tried for a criminal offence the accused person or a person authorised by him shall, if he so requires, be given, within a reasonable time not exceeding six months after judgment, a copy of any record of the proceedings made by or on behalf of the court for the use of the accused person.

1935. A person shall not be charged with or held to be guilty of a criminal offence which is founded on an act or omission that did not at the time it took place constitute an offence.

1946. No penalty shall be imposed for a criminal offence that is severer in degree or description than the maximum penalty that could have been imposed for that offence at the time when it was committed.

1957. No person who shows that he has been tried by a competent court for a criminal offence and either convicted or acquitted, shall again be tried for that offence or for any other criminal offence of which he could have been convicted at the trial for the offence, except on the order of a superior court in the course of appeal or review proceedings relating to the conviction or acquittal.

1968. Notwithstanding clause (7) of this article, an acquittal of a person on a trial for high treason or treason shall not be a bar to the institution of proceedings for any other offence against that person.

1979. Paragraphs (a) and (b) of clause (2) of this article shall not apply in the case of a trial by a court-martial or other military tribunal.

19810. No person who is tried for a criminal offence shall he compelled to give evidence at the trial.

19911. No person shall be convicted of a criminal offence unless the offence is defined and the penalty for it is prescribed in a written law.

20012. Clause (11) of this article shall not prevent a Superior Court from punishing a person for' contempt of itself notwithstanding that the act or omission constituting the contempt is not defined in a written law and the penalty is not so prescribed.

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