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Constitution of Kiribati (1979, rev. 1995)

1The following text is from the Constitute Project, who through a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, has generously made this content available for use for noncommercial purposes. Follow (right-click) the links and read the annotation to learn more.1

2


3Preamble

4We the people of Kiribati, acknowledging God as the Almighty Father in whom we put our trust, and with faith in the enduring value of our traditions and heritage, do now grant ourselves this Constitution establishing a sovereign democratic State.

5In implementing this Constitution, we declare that—

61.the will of the people shall ultimately be paramount in the conduct of the government of Kiribati;

72.the principles of equality and justice shall be upheld;

83.the natural resources of Kiribati are vested in the people and their Government;

94.we shall continue to cherish and uphold the customs and traditions of Kiribati.

10CHAPTER I. THE REPUBLIC AND THE CONSTITUTION

111. DECLARATION OF REPUBLIC

12Kiribati is a sovereign democratic Republic.

132. CONSTITUTION IS SUPREME LAW

14This Constitution is the supreme law of Kiribati and if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution, that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.

15CHAPTER II. PROTECTION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS OF THE INDIVIDUAL

163. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS OF THE INDIVIDUAL

17Whereas every person in Kiribati is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely—

18a.life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;

19b.freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association; and

20c.protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation,

21the provisions of this Chapter shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject to such limitations on that protection as are contained in those provisions, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.

224. PROTECTION OF RIGHT TO LIFE

231. No person shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence under the law in force in Kiribati of which he has been convicted.

242. A person shall not be regarded as having been deprived of his life in contravention of this section if he dies as the result of the use, to such extent and in such circumstances as are permitted by law, of such force as is reasonably justifiable—

25a.for the defence of any person from violence or for the defence of property;

26b.in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained;

27c.for the purpose of suppressing a riot, insurrection or mutiny; or

28d.in order to prevent the commission by that person of a criminal offence,

29or if he dies as the result of a lawful act of war.

305. PROTECTION OF RIGHT TO PERSONAL LIBERTY

311. No person shall be deprived of his personal liberty save as may be authorised by law in any of the following cases, that is to say—

32a.in consequence of his unfitness to plead to a criminal charge;

33b.in execution of the sentence or order of a court, whether established for Kiribati or some other country, in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted;

34c.in execution of the order of a court of record punishing him for contempt of that court or of a court inferior to it;

35d.in execution of the order of a court made to secure the fulfilment of any obligation imposed on him by law;

36e.for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court;

37f.upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence under the law in force in Kiribati;

38g.in the case of a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years, under the order of a court or with the consent of his parent or guardian, for the purpose of his education or welfare;

39h.for the purpose of preventing the spread of an infectious or contagious disease;

40i.in the case of a person who is, or is reasonably suspected to be, of unsound mind, addicted to drugs or alcohol, or a vagrant, for the purpose of his care or treatment or the protection of the community;

41j.for the purpose of preventing the unlawful entry of that person into Kiribati, or for the purpose of effecting the expulsion, extradition or other lawful removal of that person from Kiribati or for the purpose of restricting that person while he is being conveyed through Kiribati in the course of his extradition or removal as a convicted prisoner from one country to another; or

42k.to such extent as may be necessary in the execution of a lawful order requiring that person to remain within a specified area within Kiribati or prohibiting him from being within such an area, or to such extent as may be reasonably justifiable for the taking of proceedings against that person relating to the making of any such order, or to such extent as may be reasonably justifiable for restraining that person during any visit that he is permitted to make to any part of Kiribati in which, in consequence of any such order, his presence would otherwise be unlawful.

432. Any person who is arrested or detained shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, and in a language that he understands, of the reasons for his arrest or detention.

443. Any person who is arrested or detained—

45a.for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court; or

46b.upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence under the law in force in Kiribati,

47and who is not released, shall be brought without undue delay before a court; and if any person arrested or detained upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed or being about to commit a criminal offence is not tried within a reasonable time, then, without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against him, he shall be released either unconditionally or upon reasonable conditions, including in particular such conditions as are reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears at a later date for trial or for proceedings preliminary to trial.

484. Any person who is unlawfully arrested or detained by any other person shall be entitled to compensation therefor from that other person.

496. PROTECTION FROM SLAVERY AND FORCED LABOUR

501. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.

512. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.

523. For the purposes of this section, the expression “forced labour” does not include—

53a.any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;

54b.any labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;

55c.any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a disciplined force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;

56d.any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or

57e.any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligations.

587. PROTECTION FROM INHUMAN TREATMENT

591. No person shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading punishment or other treatment.

602. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question authorises the infliction of any description of punishment that was lawful in Kiribati immediately before the coming into operation of this Constitution.

618. PROTECTION FROM DEPRIVATION OF PROPERTY

621. No property of any description shall be compulsorily taken possession of, and no interest in or right over property of any description shall be compulsorily acquired, except where the following conditions are satisfied, that is to say—

63a.the taking of possession or acquisition is necessary or expedient in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town or country planning or the development or utilisation of any property for a public purpose; and

64b.there is reasonable justification for the causing of any hardship that may result to any person having an interest in or right over the property; and

65c.provision is made by a law applicable to that taking of possession or acquisition—

66i.for the payment of adequate compensation within a reasonable time; and

67ii.securing to any person having an interest in or right over the property a right of access to the High Court, whether direct or on appeal from any other authority, for the determination of his interest or right, the legality of the taking of possession or acquisition of the property, interest or right and the amount of any compensation to which he is entitled, and for the purpose of obtaining that compensation.

682. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section—

69a.to the extent that the law in question makes provision for the taking of possession or acquisition of any property—

70i.in satisfaction of any tax, rate or duty;

71ii.by way of penalty for breach of the law of forfeiture in consequence of a breach of the law;

72iii.as an incident of a lease, tenancy, mortgage, charge, bill of sale, pledge or contract;

73iv.in the execution of judgments or orders of a court in proceedings for the determination of civil rights or obligations;

74v.in circumstances where it is reasonably necessary so to do because the property is in a dangerous state or injurious to the health of human beings, animals or plants;

75vi.in consequence of any law with respect to the limitation of actions or acquisitive prescription;

76vii.for so long only as may be necessary for the purposes of any examination, investigation, trial or inquiry or, in the case of land, the carrying out thereon—

77A.of work of soil conservation or of conservation of other natural resources; or

78B.of work relating to agricultural development or improvement which the owner or occupier of the land has been required, and has without reasonable excuse refused or failed, to carry out; or

79viii.pursuant to rights granted to any person to prospect for or mine minerals where the law in question makes reasonable provision for the payment of royalties and provides for adequate compensation for disturbance of surface rights, except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society; or

80b.to the extent that the law in question makes provision for the taking of possession or acquisition of—

81i.enemy property;

82ii.property of a deceased person, a person of unsound mind, a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years or a person who is absent from Kiribati, for the purpose of its administration for the benefit of the persons entitled to the beneficial interest therein;

83iii.property of a person declared to be insolvent or a body corporate in liquidation, for the purpose of its administration for the benefit of the creditors of the insolvent or body corporate and, subject thereto, for the benefit of other persons entitled to the beneficial interest in the property; or

84iv.property subject to a trust, for the purpose of vesting the property in persons appointed as trustees under the instrument creating the trust or by a court or, by order of a court, for the purpose of giving effect to the trust.

853. Nothing in this section shall be construed as affecting the making or operation of any law for the compulsory taking of possession in the public interest of any property, or the compulsory acquisition in the public interest of any interest in or right over property, where that property, interest or right is held by a body corporate established for public purposes by any law and in which no moneys have been invested other than moneys provided by the Government.

869. PROTECTION FOR PRIVACY OF HOME AND OTHER PROPERTY

871. Except with his own consent, no person shall be subjected to the search of his person or his property or the entry by others on his premises.

882. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision—

89a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town or country planning, the development or utilisation of mineral resources, or the development or utilisation of any other property in such a manner as to promote the public benefit;

90b.for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons;

91c.for the purpose of authorising an officer or agent of the Government, a local government council or a body corporate established by law for a public purpose to enter on the premises of any person in order to inspect those premises or anything thereon for the purpose of any tax, rate or duty or in order to carry out work connected with any property that is lawfully on those premises and that belongs to that Government, council or body corporate, as the case may be;

92d.for the purpose of authorising the entry upon any premises in pursuance of an order of a court for the purpose of enforcing the judgment or order of a court in any proceedings; or

93e.for the purpose of authorising the entry upon any premises for the purpose of preventing or detecting criminal offences,

94and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, anything done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

9510. PROVISIONS TO SECURE PROTECTION OF LAW

961. If any person is charged with a criminal offence, then, unless the charge is withdrawn, the case shall be afforded a fair hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial court established by law.

972. Every person who is charged with a criminal offence—

98a.shall be presumed to be innocent until he is proved or has pleaded guilty;

99b.shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in detail and in a language that he understands, of the nature of the offence charged;

100c.shall be given adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;

101d.shall be permitted to defend himself before the court in person or, at his own expense, by a representative of his own choice;

102e.shall be afforded facilities to examine in person or by his representative the witnesses called by the prosecution before the court, and to obtain the attendance and carry out the examination of witnesses to testify on his behalf before the court on the same conditions as those applying to witnesses called by the prosecution; and

103f.shall be permitted to have without payment the assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand the language used at the trial of the charge,

104and, except with his own consent, the trial shall not take place in his absence unless he so conducts himself as to render the continuance of the proceedings in his presence impracticable and the court has ordered him to be removed and the trial to proceed in his absence.

1053. When a person is tried for any criminal offence, the accused person or any person authorised by him in that behalf shall, if he so requires and subject to payment of such reasonable fee as may be prescribed by law, be given within a reasonable time after judgment a copy for the use of the accused person of any record of the proceedings made by or on behalf of the court.

1064. No person shall be held to be guilty of a criminal offence on account of any act or omission that did not, at the time it took place, constitute such an offence, and no penalty shall be imposed for any criminal offence that is severer in degree or description than the maximum penalty that might have been imposed for that offence at the time when it was committed.

1075. No person who shows that he has been tried by a competent court for a criminal offence and either convicted or acquitted shall again be tried for that offence or for any other criminal offence of which he could have been convicted at the trial for that offence, save upon the order of a superior court in the course of appeal or review proceedings relating to the conviction or acquittal.

1086. No person shall be tried for a criminal offence if he shows that he has been pardoned for that offence.

1097. No person who is tried for a criminal offence shall be compelled to give evidence at the trial.

1108. Any court or other adjudicating authority prescribed by law for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation shall be established or recognised by law and shall be independent and impartial; and where proceedings for such a determination are instituted by any person before such a court or other adjudicating authority, the case shall be given a fair hearing within a reasonable time.

1119. Except with the agreement of all the parties thereto, all proceedings of every court and proceedings for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation before any other adjudicating authority, including the announcement of the decision of the court or other authority, shall be held in public.

11210. Nothing in the preceding subsection shall prevent the court or other adjudicating authority from excluding from the proceedings persons other than the parties thereto and their representatives to such extent as the court or other authority—

113a.may by law be empowered so to do and may consider necessary or expedient in circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice or in interlocutory proceedings or in the interests of decency, public morality, the welfare of persons under the age of eighteen years or the protection of the private lives of persons concerned in the proceedings; or

114b.may by law be empowered or required so to do in the interests of defence, public safety or public order.

11511. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of—

116a.subsection (2)(a) of this section to the extent that the law in question imposes upon any person charged with a criminal offence the burden of proving particular facts;

117b.subsection (2)(e) of this section to the extent that the law in question imposes reasonable conditions that must be satisfied if witnesses called to testify on behalf of an accused person are to be paid their expenses out of public funds; or

118c.subsection (5) of this section to the extent that the law in question authorises a court to try a member of a disciplined force for a criminal offence notwithstanding any trial and conviction or acquittal of that member under the disciplinary law of that force, so, however, that any court so trying such a member and convicting him shall in sentencing him to any punishment take into account any punishment awarded him under that disciplinary law.

11912. In this section “criminal offence” means a criminal offence under the law in force in Kiribati.

12011. PROTECTION OF FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE

1211. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of conscience, and for the purposes of this section the said freedom includes freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others, and both in public and in private, to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance.

1222. Every religious community shall be entitled, at its own expense, to establish and maintain places of education and to manage any place of education which it wholly maintains.

1233. No religious community shall be prevented from providing religious instruction for persons of that community in the course of any education provided at any place of education which it wholly maintains or in the course of any education which it otherwise provides.

1244. Except with his own consent (or, if he is a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years, the consent of his guardian) no person attending any place of education shall be required to receive religious instruction or to take part in or attend any religious ceremony or observance if that instruction, ceremony or observance relates to a religion other than his own.

1255. No person shall be compelled to take any oath which is contrary to his religion or belief or to take any oath in a manner which is contrary to his religion or belief.

1266. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision which is reasonably required—

127a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or

128b.for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons, including the right to observe and practise any religion without the unsolicited intervention of members of any other religion,

129and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

1307. References in this section to a religion shall be construed as including references to a religious denomination, and cognate expressions shall be construed accordingly.

13112. PROTECTION OF FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

1321. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, and for the purposes of this section the said freedom includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interference and freedom from interference with his correspondence.

1332. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision—

134a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health;

135b.for the purpose of protecting the reputations, rights and freedoms of other persons or the private lives of persons concerned in legal proceedings, preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, maintaining the authority and independence of the courts, or regulating the administration or the technical operation of telephony, telegraphy, posts, wireless or broadcasting; or

136c.that imposes restrictions upon public employees,

137and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

13813. PROTECTION OF FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY AND ASSOCIATION

1391. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to associations for the advancement or protection of his interests.

1402. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision—

141a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health;

142b.for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons; or

143c.that imposes restrictions upon public employees,

144and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

14514. PROTECTION OF FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT

1461. No person shall be deprived of his freedom of movement, and for the purposes of this section the said freedom means the right to move freely throughout Kiribati, the right to reside in any part of Kiribati, the right to enter and to leave Kiribati and immunity from expulsion from Kiribati.

1472. Any restriction on a person’s freedom of movement that is involved in his lawful detention shall not be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section.

1483. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision—

149a.for the imposition of restrictions on the movement or residence within Kiribati of any person or on any person’s right to leave Kiribati that are reasonably required in the interests of defence, public safety or public order;

150b.for the imposition of restrictions on the movement or residence within Kiribati or on the right to leave Kiribati of persons generally or any class of persons that are reasonably required in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, environmental conservation or in fulfilment of the international treaty obligations of Kiribati;

151c.for the imposition of restrictions on the movement or residence within Kiribati of any person who is not a citizen of Kiribati or the exclusion or expulsion from Kiribati of any such person;

152d.for the imposition of restrictions on the acquisition or use by any person of land or other property in Kiribati;

153e.for the imposition of restrictions upon the movement or residence within Kiribati of public employees that are reasonably required for the purpose of ensuring the proper performance of their functions;

154f.for the removal of a person from Kiribati to be tried or punished in some other country for a criminal offence under the law of that other country or to undergo imprisonment in that other country in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence under the law in force in Kiribati of which he has been convicted;

155g.for the imposition of restrictions, by order of a court, on the movement or residence within Kiribati of any person or on any person’s right to leave Kiribati either in consequence of his having been found guilty of a criminal offence under the law of Kiribati or for the purpose of ensuring that he appears before a court at a later date for trial or for proceedings relating to his extradition or lawful removal from Kiribati; or

156h.for the imposition of restrictions on the right of any person to leave Kiribati in order to secure the fulfilment of any obligations imposed upon that person by law, except so far as the provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

1574. If any person whose freedom of movement has been restricted by virtue only of such a provision as is referred to in subsection (3)(a) of this section so requests at any time during the period of that restriction not earlier than six months after he last made such a request during that period, his case shall be reviewed by an independent and impartial Tribunal.

1585. On any review by a Tribunal in pursuance of the preceding subsection of the case of a person whose freedom of movement has been restricted, the Tribunal may make recommendations concerning the necessity or expediency of continuing the restriction to the authority by which it was ordered but, unless it is otherwise provided by law, that authority shall not be obliged to act in accordance with any such recommendations.

15915. PROTECTION FROM DISCRIMINATION ON THE GROUNDS OF RACE, ETC

1601. Subject to the provisions of subsections (4), (5) and (8) of this section, no law shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

1612. Subject to the provisions of subsections (6), (7) and (8) of this section, no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting by virtue of any written law or in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.

1623. In this section, the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, place of origin, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.

1634. Subsection (1) of this section shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision—

164a.for the imposition of taxation or the appropriation of revenue by the Government or any local authority or body for local purposes;

165b.with respect to persons who are not citizens of Kiribati;

166c.for the application, in the case of persons of any such description as is mentioned in the preceding subsection (or of persons connected with such persons), of the law with respect to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death or other like matters that is the personal law applicable to persons of that description;

167d.with respect to land, the tenure of land, the resumption and acquisition of land and other like purposes; or

168e.whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in the preceding subsection may be subjected to any disability or restriction or may be accorded any privilege or advantage which, having regard to its nature and to special circumstances pertaining to those persons or to persons of any other such description, is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

1695. Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1) of this section to the extent that it makes provision with respect to standards or qualifications (not being standards or qualifications specifically relating to race, place of origin, political opinions, colour or creed) to be required of any person who is appointed to any office in the public service, any office in a disciplined force, any office in the service of a local government council or any office in a body corporate established directly by any law for public purposes.

1706. Subsection (2) of this section shall not apply to anything which is expressly or by necessary implication authorised to be done by any such provision of law as is referred to in subsection (4) or (5) of this section.

1717. Subsection (2) of this section shall not affect any discretion relating to the institution, conduct or discontinuance of civil or criminal proceedings in any court that is vested in any person by or under this Constitution or any other law.

1728. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in subsection (3) of this section may be subjected to any restriction on the rights and freedoms guaranteed by sections 9, 11, 12, 13, and 14 of this Constitution, being such a restriction as is authorised by section 9 (2), 11 (6), 12 (2), 13 (2), or 14 (3), as the case may be.

1739. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with the provisions of this section—

174a.if that law was in force immediately before the coming into operation of this Constitution and has continued in force at all times since the coming into operation of this Constitution; or

175b.to the extent that the law repeals and re-enacts any provision which has been contained in any enactment at all times since immediately before the coming into operation of this Constitution.

17616. PROVISIONS FOR PERIODS OF PUBLIC EMERGENCY

1771. In this Chapter “period of public emergency” means any period during which—

178a.Kiribati is at war; or

179b.there is in force a proclamation made under this section.

1802. The Beretitenti, acting in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet, may at any time declare that a state of public emergency exists and make regulations for the purpose of dealing with the public emergency.

1813. Any declaration or regulations under the preceding subsection shall be made by proclamation published at the office of the Beretitenti.

1824. A proclamation made under this section, if not sooner revoked, shall cease to have effect at the expiration of three days (or, in the case of a proclamation made otherwise than during a meeting of the Maneaba ni Maungatabu, thirty days) from the date of publication unless it has in the meantime been approved by a resolution of the Maneaba, and a proclamation that has been so approved shall remain in force so long as the resolution remains in force and no longer.

1835. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law of regulation shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of section 5, 6(2), 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 or 15 of this Constitution to the extent that the law or regulation in question makes in relation to any period or public emergency provision, or authorises the doing during any such period of any thing, that is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during the period for the purpose of dealing with that situation.

1846. Where a person is detained by virtue of such a law or regulation as is referred to in the preceding subsection, the following provisions shall apply, that is to say—

185a.he shall, as soon as reasonably practicable and in any case not more than ten days after the commencement of his detention, be furnished with a statement in writing, in a language that he understands, specifying in detail the grounds upon which he is detained;

186b.not more than fourteen days after the commencement of his detention, a notification shall be published at the office of the Beretitenti stating that he has been detained and giving particulars of the provision of law under which his detention is authorised;

187c.not more than one month after the commencement of his detention and thereafter during his detention at intervals of not more than six months, his case shall be reviewed by an independent and impartial Tribunal consisting of a Chairman appointed by the Chief Justice and two other members appointed by the Chief Justice sitting with the Public Service Commission;

188d.he shall be afforded reasonable facilities to consult a representative of his own choice who shall be permitted to make representations to the Tribunal; and

189e.at the hearing of his case by the Tribunal he shall be permitted to appear in person or through a representative of his own choice.

1907. On any review by a Tribunal in pursuance of this section of the case of a detained person, the Tribunal may make recommendations concerning the necessity or expediency of continuing his detention to the authority by which it was ordered but, unless it is otherwise provided by law, that authority shall not be obliged to act in accordance with any such recommendations.

1918. Nothing in subsection (6)(d) or (e) of this section shall be construed as entitling a person to representation at public expense.

19217. ENFORCEMENT OF PROTECTIVE PROVISIONS

1931. Subject to the provisions of subsection (5) of this section, if any person alleges that any of the provisions of sections 3 to 16 (inclusive) of this Constitution has been, is being or is likely to be contravened in relation to him (or, in the case of a person who is detained, if any other person alleges such a contravention in relation to the detained person) then, without prejudice to any other action with respect to the same matter which is lawfully available, that person (or that other person) may apply to the High Court for redress.

1942. The High Court shall have original jurisdiction—

195a.to hear and determine any application made by any person in pursuance of the preceding subsection;

196b.to determine any question arising in the case of any person which is referred to it in pursuance of the next following subsection,

197and may make such orders, issue such writs and give such directions as it may consider appropriate for the purpose of enforcing or securing the enforcement of any of the provisions of sections 3 to 16 (inclusive) of this Constitution:

198Provided that the High Court may decline to exercise its powers under this subsection if it is satisfied that adequate means of redress for the contravention alleged are or have been available to the person concerned under other provisions of this Constitution or under any other law.

1993. If in any proceedings in any subordinate court any question arises as to the contravention of any of the provisions of sections 3 to 16 (inclusive) of this Constitution, the person presiding in that court may, and shall if any party to the proceedings so requests, refer the question to the High Court unless, in his opinion, the raising of the question is merely frivolous or vexatious.

2004. The Maneaba ni Maungatabu may by law confer upon the High Court powers additional to those conferred by this section for the purpose of enabling that court more effectively to exercise the jurisdiction conferred upon it by this section.

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