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Constitution of Lesotho (1993, rev. 1998)

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3CHAPTER I. THE KINGDOM AND ITS CONSTITUTION

41. THE KINGDOM AND ITS TERRITORY

51. Lesotho shall be a sovereign democratic kingdom.

62. The territory of Lesotho shall comprise all the areas that immediately before 4th October 1966 were comprised in the former Colony of Basutoland together with such other areas as may from time to time be declared by an Act of Parliament to form part of Lesotho.

72. THE CONSTITUTION

8This Constitution is the supreme law of Lesotho and if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution, that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.

93. OFFICIAL LANGUAGES, NATIONAL SEAL, ETC.

101. The official languages of Lesotho shall be Sesotho and English and, accordingly, no instrument or transaction shall be invalid by reason only that it is expressed or conducted in one of those languages.

112. Subject to the provisions of this section, the National Seal of Lesotho shall be such device, and the national anthem and national flag shall be such anthem and flag, as the case may be, as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament.

123. A bill for an Act of Parliament for the purposes of this section shall not be presented to the King for assent unless it is supported at the final voting in the National Assembly by the votes of no less than two-thirds of all the members of the National Assembly.

13CHAPTER II. PROTECTION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

144. FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

151. Whereas every person in Lesotho is entitled, whatever his race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status to fundamental human rights and freedoms, that is to say, to each and all of the following--

16a.the right to life;

17b.the right to personal liberty;

18c.freedom of movement and residence;

19d.freedom from inhuman treatment;

20e.freedom from slavery and forced labour;

21f.freedom from arbitrary search or entry;

22g.the right to respect for private and family life;

23h.the right to a fair trial of criminal charges against him and to a fair determination of his civil rights and obligations;

24i.freedom of conscience;

25j.freedom of expression;

26k.freedom of peaceful assembly;

27l.freedom of association;

28m.freedom from arbitrary seizure of property;

29n.freedom from discrimination;

30o.the right to equality before the law and the equal protection of the law; and

31p.the right to participate in government,

32the provisions of this Chapter shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms, subject to such limitations of that protection as are contained in those provisions, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any person does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.

332. For the avoidance of doubt and without prejudice to any other provision of this Constitution it is hereby declared that the provisions of this Chapter shall, except where the context otherwise requires, apply as well in relation to things done or omitted to be done by persons acting in a private capacity (whether by virtue of any written law or otherwise) as in relation to things done or omitted to be done by or on behalf of the Government of Lesotho or by any person acting in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.

345. RIGHT TO LIFE

351. Every human being has an inherent right to life. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

362. Without prejudice to any liability for a contravention of any other law with respect to the use of force in such cases as are hereinafter mentioned, a person shall not be regarded as having been deprived of his life in contravention of this section if he dies as the result of the use of force to such extent as is necessary in the circumstances of the case--

37a.for the defence of any person from violence or for the defence of property;

38b.in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained;

39c.for the purpose of suppressing a riot, insurrection or mutiny; or

40d.in order to prevent the commission by that person of a criminal offence,

41or if he dies as the result of a lawful act of war or in execution of the sentence of death imposed by a court in respect of a criminal offence under the law of Lesotho of which he has been convicted.

426. RIGHT TO PERSONAL LIBERTY

431. Every person shall be entitled to personal liberty, that is to say, he shall not be arrested or detained save as may be authorised by law in any of the following cases, that is to say--

44a.in execution of the sentence or order of a court, whether established for Lesotho or for some other country, in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted;

45b.in execution of the order of the court punishing him for contempt of that court or of a tribunal;

46c.in execution of the order of a court made to secure the fulfilment of any obligation imposed on him by law;

47d.for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court;

48e.upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence under the law of Lesotho;

49f.in the case of a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years, for the purpose of his education or welfare;

50g.for the purpose of preventing the spread of an infectious or contagious disease;

51h.in the case of a person who is, or is reasonably suspected to be, of unsound mind, addicted to drugs or alcohol, or a vagrant, for the purpose of his care and treatment or the protection of the community;

52i.for the purpose of preventing the unlawful entry of that person into Lesotho, or for the purpose of effecting the expulsion, extradition or other lawful removal of that person from Lesotho or for the purpose of restricting that person while he is being conveyed through Lesotho in the course of his extradition or removal as a convicted prisoner from one country to another; or

53j.to such extent as may be necessary in the execution of a lawful order requiring that person to remain within a specified area within Lesotho or prohibiting him from being within such an area, or to such extent as may be reasonably justifiable for the taking of proceedings against that person with a view to the making of any such order or relating to such an order after it has been made, or to such extent as may be reasonably justifiable for restraining that person during any visit that he is permitted to make to any part of Lesotho in which, in consequence of any such order, his presence would otherwise be unlawful.

542. Any person who is arrested or detained shall be informed as soon as is reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands, of the reasons for his arrest or detention.

553. Any person who is arrested or detained--

56a.for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court; or

57b.upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence,

58and who is not released, shall be brought before a court as soon as is reasonably practicable, and where he is not brought before a court within forty-eight hours of his arrest or from the commencement of his detention, the burden of proving that he has been brought before a court as soon as is reasonably practicable shall rest upon any person alleging that the provisions of this subsection have been complied with.

594. Where any person is brought before a court in execution of the order of a court in any proceedings or upon suspicion of his having committed or being about to commit an offence, he shall not be thereafter further held in custody in connection with those proceedings or that offence save upon the order of a court.

605. If any person arrested or detained upon suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence is not tried within a reasonable time, then, without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against him, he shall be released either unconditionally or upon reasonable conditions, including in particular such conditions as are reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears at a later date for trial or for proceedings preliminary to trial.

616. Without prejudice to the generality of any other provision of this Constitution or any other law by virtue of which a person is entitled to redress for a contravention of this section, any person who is unlawfully arrested or detained by any other person shall be entitled to compensation from that other person or from any other person or authority on whose behalf that other person was acting.

627. FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT

631. Every person shall be entitled to freedom of movement, that is to say, the right to move freely throughout Lesotho, the right to reside in any part of Lesotho, the right to enter Lesotho, the right to leave Lesotho and immunity from expulsion from Lesotho.

642. Any restriction on a person's freedom of movement that is involved in his lawful detention shall not be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section.

653. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision--

66a.for the imposition of restrictions in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health on the movement or residence within Lesotho of any person or any person's right to leave Lesotho:

67Provided that a person shall not be permitted to rely in any judicial proceedings upon such a provision of law as is referred to in this paragraph except to the extent to which he satisfies the court that the provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof does not restrict the movement or residence within Lesotho or the right to leave Lesotho of the person concerned to a greater extent than is necessary in a practical sense in a democratic society in the interests of any of the matters specified in this paragraph;

68b.for the imposition of restrictions, by order of a court, on the movement or residence within Lesotho of any person or on any person's right to leave Lesotho either in consequence of his having been convicted of a criminal offence under the law of Lesotho or for the purpose of ensuring that he appears before a court at a later date for trial in respect of such a criminal offence or for proceedings preliminary to trial or for proceedings relating to his extradition or lawful removal from Lesotho;

69c.for the prohibition from entry into Lesotho of a person who is not a citizen of Lesotho;

70d.for the imposition of restrictions on the freedom of movement of any person who is not a citizen of Lesotho;

71e.for the imposition of restrictions on the acquisition or use by any person of land or other property in Lesotho;

72f.for the imposition of restrictions upon the movement or residence within Lesotho or on the right to leave Lesotho of any public officer;

73g.for the removal of a person from Lesotho to be tried or punished in some other country for a criminal offence under the law of that other country or to undergo imprisonment in some other country in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted under the law of Lesotho; or

74h.for the imposition of restrictions on the right of any person to leave Lesotho that are necessary in a practical sense in a democratic society in order to secure the fulfilment of any obligations imposed on that person by law.

754. If any person whose freedom of movement has been restricted by virtue of such a provision as is referred to in subsection (3)(a) so requests at any time during the period of that restriction not earlier than one month after the order was made or three months after he last made such a request, as the case may be, his case shall be investigated by an independent and impartial tribunal presided over by a person appointed by the Chief Justice:

76Provided that a person whose freedom of movement has been restricted by virtue of a restriction that is applicable to persons generally or to general classes of persons shall not make a request under this subsection unless he has first obtained the consent of the High Court.

775. On any investigation by a tribunal in pursuance of subsection (4) of this section of the case of any person whose freedom of movement has been restricted, the tribunal may make recommendations concerning the necessity or expediency of continuing that restriction to the authority by whom it was ordered and, unless it is otherwise provided by law, that authority shall be obliged to act in accordance with any such recommendations.

786. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any provision of the customary law of Lesotho shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that that provision authorises the imposition of restrictions upon any person's freedom to reside in any part of Lesotho.

798. FREEDOM FROM INHUMAN TREATMENT

801. No person shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading punishment or other treatment.

812. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question authorises the infliction of any description of punishment that was lawful in Lesotho immediately before the coming into operation of this Constitution.

829. FREEDOM FROM SLAVERY AND FORCED LABOUR

831. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.

842. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.

853. For the purposes of this section, the expression "forced labour" does not include--

86a.any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;

87b.any labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably required in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;

88c.any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;

89d.any labour required during any period when Lesotho is at war or a declaration of emergency under section 23 of this Constitution is in force or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable, in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or

90e.any labour reasonably required by law as part of reasonable and normal community or other civic obligations.

9110. FREEDOM FROM ARBITRARY SEARCH OR ENTRY

921. Every person shall be entitled to freedom from arbitrary search or entry, that is to say, he shall not (except with his own consent) be subjected to the search of his person or his property or the entry by others on his premises.

932. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision--

94a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town and country planning, the development or utilisation of mineral resources or the development or utilisation of any other property in such a manner as to promote the public benefit;

95b.for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons;

96c.that authorises an officer or agent of the Government of Lesotho or of a local government authority or of a body corporate established by law for public purposes to enter on the premises of any person for the purpose of inspecting those premises or anything thereon in connection with any tax, rate or due or for the purpose of carrying out work connected with any property that is lawfully on those premises and that belongs to that Government, authority or body corporate, as the case may be; or

97d.that authorises, for the purpose of enforcing the judgement or order of a court in any civil proceedings, the entry upon any premises by order of a court.

983. A person shall not be permitted to rely in any judicial proceedings upon such a provision of law as is referred to in subsection (2) except to the extent to which he satisfies the court that that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof does not abridge the freedom guaranteed by subsection (1) to a greater extent than is necessary in a practical sense in a democratic society in the interests of any of the matters specified in subsection (2)(a) or for any of the purposes specified in subsection (2)(b), (c) or (d).

9911. RIGHT TO RESPECT FOR PRIVATE AND FAMILY LIFE

1001. Every person shall be entitled to respect for his private and family life and his home.

1012. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision--

102a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or

103b.for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons.

1043. A person shall not be permitted to rely in any judicial proceedings upon such a provision of law as is referred to in subsection (2) except to the extent to which he satisfies the court that that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof does not abridge the right guaranteed by subsection (1) to a greater extent than is necessary in a practical sense in a democratic society in the interests of any of the matters specified in subsection (2)(a) or for the purpose specified in subsection (2)(b).

10512. RIGHT TO FAIR TRIAL, ETC.

1061. If any person is charged with a criminal offence, then, unless the charge is withdrawn, the case shall be afforded a fair hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial court established by law.

1072. Every person who is charged with a criminal offence--

108a.shall be presumed to be innocent until he is proved or has pleaded guilty;

109b.shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands and in adequate detail, of the nature of the offence charged;

110c.shall be given adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;

111d.shall be permitted to defend himself before the court in person or by a legal representative of his own choice;

112e.shall be afforded facilities to examine in person or by his legal representative the witnesses called by the prosecution before the court and to obtain the attendance and carry out the examination of witnesses to testify on his behalf before the court on the same conditions as those applying to witnesses called by the prosecution; and

113f.shall be permitted to have without payment the assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand the language used at the trial of the charge,

114and except with his own consent the trial shall not take place in his absence unless he so conducts himself as to render the continuance of the proceedings in his presence impracticable and the court has ordered him to be removed and the trial to proceed in his absence.

1153. When a person is tried for any criminal offence, the accused person or any person authorised by him in that behalf shall, if he so requires and subject to payment of such reasonable fee as may be prescribed by law, be given within a reasonable time after judgement a copy for the use of the accused person of any record of the proceedings made by or on behalf of the court.

1164. No person shall be held to be guilty of a criminal offence on account of any act or omission that did not, at the time it took place, constitute such an offence, and no penalty shall be imposed for a criminal offence that is severer in degree or description than the maximum penalty that might have been imposed for that offence at the time when it was committed.

1175. No person who shows that he has been tried by a competent court for a criminal offence and either convicted or acquitted shall be tried again for that offence or for any other criminal offence of which he could have been convicted at the trial for that offence, save upon the order of a superior court in the course of appeal or review proceedings relating to the conviction or acquittal.

1186. No person shall be tried for a criminal offence if he shows that he has been pardoned for that offence.

1197. No person who is tried for a criminal offence shall be compelled to give evidence at the trial.

1208. Any court or other adjudicating authority prescribed by law for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation shall be established by law and shall be independent and impartial; and where proceedings for such a determination are instituted by any person before such a court or other adjudicating authority, the case shall be given a fair hearing within reasonable time.

1219. Except with the agreement of all parties thereto, all proceedings of every court and proceedings for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation before any other adjudicating authority, including the announcement of the decision of the court or other authority, shall be held in public.

12210. Nothing in subsection (9) shall prevent the court or other adjudicating authority from excluding from the proceedings persons other than the parties thereto and their legal representatives to such extent as the court or other authority--

123a.may by law be empowered to do and may consider necessary or expedient in circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice or in interlocutory proceedings or in the interests of public morality, the welfare of persons under the age of eighteen years or the protection of the private lives of persons concerned in the proceedings; or

124b.may by law be empowered or required to do in the interests of defence, public safety or public order.

12511. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of--

126a.subsection (2)(a) to the extent that the law in question imposes upon any person charged with a criminal offence the burden of proving particular facts;

127b.subsection (2)(e) to the extent that the law in question imposes conditions that must be satisfied if witnesses called to testify on behalf of accused persons are to be paid their expenses out of public funds; or

128c.subsection (5) to the extent that the law in question authorises a court to try a member of a disciplined force for a criminal offence notwithstanding any trial and conviction or acquittal of that member under the disciplinary law of that force, so, however, that any court so trying such a member and convicting him shall in sentencing him to any punishment take into account any punishment awarded him under that disciplinary law.

12912. In the case of any person who is held in lawful detention the provisions of subsection (1), subsections (2)(d) and (e) and subsection (3) shall not apply in relation to his trial for a criminal offence under the law regulating the discipline of persons held in such detention.

13013. Nothing contained in subsection (2)(d) shall be construed as entitling a person to legal representation at public expense.

13114. In this section "criminal offence" means a criminal offence under the law of Lesotho.

13213. FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE

1331. Every person shall be entitled to, and (except with his own consent) shall not be hindered in his enjoyment of, freedom of conscience, including freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others, and both in public and in private, to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance.

1342. Every religious community shall be entitled, at its own expense, to establish and maintain places of education and to manage any place of education which it wholly maintains; and no such community shall be prevented from providing religious instruction for persons of that community in the course of any education provided at any places of education which it wholly maintains or in the course of any education which it otherwise provides.

1353. Except with his own consent (or, if he is a minor, the consent of his guardian), no person attending any place of education shall be required to receive religious instruction or to take part in or attend any religious ceremony or observance if that instruction, ceremony or observance relates to a religion other than his own.

1364. No person shall be compelled to take any oath which is contrary to his religion or belief or to take any oath in a manner which is contrary to his religion or belief.

1375. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision--

138a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or

139b.for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons, including the right to observe and practice any religion without the unsolicited intervention of members of any other religion.

1406. A person shall not be permitted to rely in any judicial proceedings upon such a provision of law as is referred to in subsection (5) except to the extent to which he satisfies the court that that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof does not abridge the rights and freedoms guaranteed by this section to a greater extent than is necessary in a practical sense in a democratic society in the interests of any of the matters specified in subsection (5)(a) or for the purpose specified in subsection (5)(b).

1417. Reference in this section to a religion shall be construed as including references to a religious denomination, and cognate expressions shall be construed accordingly.

14214. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

1431. Every person shall be entitled to, and (except with his own consent) shall not be hindered in his enjoyment of, freedom of expression, including freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to communicate ideas and information without interference (whether the communication be to the public generally or to any person or class of persons) and freedom from interference with his correspondence.

1442. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision--

145a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or

146b.for the purpose of protecting the reputations, rights and freedoms of other persons or the private lives of persons concerned in legal proceedings, preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, maintaining the authority and independence of the courts, or regulating the technical administration or the technical operation of telephony, telegraphy, posts, wireless broadcasting or television; or

147c.for the purpose of imposing restrictions upon public officers.

1483. A person shall not be permitted to rely in any judicial proceedings upon such a provision of law as is referred to in subsection (2) except to the extent to which he satisfies the court that that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof does not abridge the freedom guaranteed by subsection (1) to a greater extent than is necessary in a practical sense in a democratic society in the interests of any of the matters specified in subsection (2)(a) or for any of the purposes specified in subsection (2)(b) or (c).

1494. Any person who feels aggrieved by statements or ideas disseminated to the public in general by a medium of communication has the right to reply or to require a correction to be made using the same medium, under such conditions as the law may establish.

15015. FREEDOM OF PEACEFUL ASSEMBLY

1511. Every person shall be entitled to, and (except with his own consent) shall not be hindered in his enjoyment of freedom of peaceful assembly, without arms, that is to say, freedom to assemble with other persons.

1522. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision--

153a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health;

154b.for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons; or

155c.for the purpose of imposing restrictions upon public officers.

1563. A person shall not be permitted to rely in any judicial proceedings upon such a provision of law as is referred to in subsection (2) except to the extent to which he satisfies the court that that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof does not abridge the rights and freedoms guaranteed by subsection (1) to a greater extent than is necessary in a practical sense in a democratic society in the interests of any of the matters specified in subsection (2)(a) or for any of the purposes specified in subsection (2)(b) or (c).

15716. FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION

1581. Every person shall be entitled to, and (except with his own consent) shall not be hindered in his enjoyment of freedom to associate freely with other persons for ideological, religious, political, economic, labour, social, cultural, recreational and similar purposes.

1592. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of any law to the extent that the law in question makes provision--

160a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health;

161b.for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons; or

162c.for the purpose of imposing restrictions upon public officers.

1633. A person shall not be permitted to rely in any judicial proceedings upon such a provision of law as is referred to in subsection (2) except to the extent to which he satisfies the court that that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof does not abridge the rights and freedoms guaranteed by subsection (1) to a greater extent than is necessary in a practical sense in a democratic society in the interests of any of the matters specified in subsection (2)(a) or for any of the purposes specified in subsection (2)(b) or (c).

16417. FREEDOM FROM ARBITRARY SEIZURE OF PROPERTY

1651. No property, movable or immovable, shall be taken possession of compulsorily, and no interest in or right over any such property shall be compulsorily acquired, except where the following conditions are satisfied, that is to say--

166a.the taking of possession or acquisition is necessary in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town and country planning or the development or utilisation of any property in such manner as to promote the public benefit; and

167b.the necessity therefor is such as to afford reasonable justification for the causing of any hardship that may result to any person having an interest in or right over the property; and

168c.provision is made by a law applicable to that taking of possession or acquisition for the prompt payment of full compensation.

1692. Every person having an interest in or right over property which is compulsorily taken possession of or whose interest in or right over any property is compulsorily acquired shall have a right of direct access to the High Court for--

170a.the determination of his interest or right, the legality of the taking of possession or acquisition of the property, interest or right and the amount of any compensation to which he is entitled; and

171b.the purpose of obtaining prompt payment of that compensation:

172Provided that if Parliament so provides in relation to any matter referred to in paragraph (a) the right of access shall be by way of appeal (exercisable as of right at the instance of the person having the interest in or right over the property) from a tribunal or authority, other than the High Court, having jurisdiction under any law to determine that matter.

1733. The Chief Justice may make rules with respect to the practice and procedure of the High Court or any other tribunal or authority in relation to the jurisdiction conferred on the High Court by subsection (2) or exercisable by the other tribunal or authority for the purposes of that subsection (including rules with respect to the time within which applications or appeals to the High Court or applications to the other tribunal or authority may be brought).

1744. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1) or (2)--

175a.to the extent that the law in question makes provision that is necessary in a practical sense in a democratic society for the taking of possession or acquisition of any property, interest or right--

176i.in satisfaction of any tax, duty, rate, or other impost;

177ii.by way of penalty for breach of the law, whether under civil process or after conviction of a criminal offence under the law of Lesotho;

178iii.as an incident of a valid contract or of the terms and conditions of service of a public officer;

179iv.in the execution of judgments or orders of a court in proceedings for the determination of civil rights or obligations;

180v.in circumstances where it is reasonably necessary to do so because the property is in a dangerous state or injurious to the health of human beings, animals or plants;

181vi.in consequence of any law with respect to prescription or limitation of actions;

182vii.for so long only as may be necessary for the purposes of any examination, investigation, trial or inquiry or, in the case of land, for the purpose of carrying out thereon of work of soil conservation or the conservation of other natural resources or work relating to agricultural development or improvement (being work relating to such development or improvement that the occupier of the land has been required, and has without reasonable excuse refused or failed, to carry out); or

183viii.in satisfaction of the right conferred under section 14(4); or

184b.to the extent that the law in question makes provision for the taking of possession or acquisition of the following property (including an interest in or right over property), that is to say--

185i.enemy property;

186ii.property of a deceased person, a person of unsound mind or a person who has not attained the age of twenty-one years, for the purpose of its administration for the benefit of the persons entitled to the beneficial interest therein;

187iii.property of a person adjudged insolvent or a body corporate in liquidation, for the purpose of its administration for the benefit of the creditors of the insolvent or body corporate and, subject thereto, for the benefit of other persons entitled to the beneficial interest in the property; or

188iv.property subject to a trust, for the purpose of vesting the property in persons appointed as trustees under the instrument creating the trust or by a court or, by order of a court, for the purpose of giving effect to the trust.

1895. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any Act of Parliament shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the Act in question makes provision for the compulsory taking possession of any property or the compulsory acquisition of any interest in or right over property where that property, interest or right is vested in a body corporate established by law for public purposes, in which no moneys have been invested other than moneys provided by Parliament.

19018. FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION

1911. Subject to the provisions of subsections (4) and (5) no law shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

1922. Subject to the provisions of subsection (6), no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting by virtue of any written law or in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.

1933. In this section, the expression "discriminatory" means affording different treatment to different persons attributable wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.

1944. Subsection (1) shall not apply to any law to the extent that that law makes provision--

195a.with respect to persons who are not citizens of Lesotho; or

196b.for the application, in the case of persons of any such description as is mentioned in subsection (3) (or of persons connected with such persons), of the law with respect to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death or other like matters which is the personal law of persons of that description; or

197c.for the application of the customary law of Lesotho with respect to any matter in the case of persons who, under that law, are subject to that law; or

198d.for the appropriation of public revenues or other public funds; or

199e.whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in subsection (3) may be made subject to any disability or restriction or may be accorded any privilege or advantage which, having regard to its nature and to special circumstances pertaining to those persons or to persons of any other such description, is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

200Nothing in this subsection shall prevent the making of laws in pursuance of the principle of State Policy of promoting a society based on equality and justice for all the citizens of Lesotho and thereby removing any discriminatory law.

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