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Constitution of Mauritius (1968, rev. 2011)

1The following text is from the Constitute Project, who through a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, has generously made this content available for use for noncommercial purposes. Follow (right-click) the links and read the annotation to learn more. 1

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3CHAPTER I. THE STATE AND THE CONSTITUTION

41. THE STATE

5Mauritius shall be a sovereign democratic State which shall be known as the Republic of Mauritius.

62. CONSTITUTION IS SUPREME LAW

7This Constitution is the supreme law of Mauritius, and if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution, that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.

8CHAPTER II. PROTECTION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS OF THE INDIVIDUAL

93. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS OF THE INDIVIDUAL

10It is hereby recognised and declared that in Mauritius there have existed and shall continue to exist without discrimination by reason of race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest, each and all of the following human rights and fundamental freedoms

11a.the right of the individual to life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;

12b.freedom of conscience, of expression, of assembly and association and freedom to establish schools, and

13c.the right of the individual to protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation,

14and the provisions of this Chapter shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject to such limitations of that protection as are contained in those provisions, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of those rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.

154. PROTECTION OF RIGHT TO LIFE

161. No person shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted.

172. A person shall, not be regarded as having been deprived of his life in contravention of this section, if he dies as the result of the use, to such extent and in such circumstances as are permitted by law, of such force as is reasonably justifiable

18a.for the defence of any person from violence or for the defence of property;

19b.in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained;

20c.for the purpose of suppressing a riot, insurrection or mutiny; or

21d.in order to prevent the commission by that person of a criminal offence, or if he dies as the result of a lawful act of war.

225. PROTECTION OF RIGHT TO PERSONAL LIBERTY

231. No person shall be deprived of his personal liberty save as may be authorised by law

24a.in consequence of his unfitness to plead to a criminal charge or in execution of the sentence or order of a court, whether in Mauritius or elsewhere, in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted;

25b.in execution of the order of a court punishing him for contempt of that court or of another court;

26c.in execution of the order of a court made to secure the fulfillment of any obligation imposed on him by law;

27d.for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court;

28e.upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence;

29f.in the case of a person who has not attained the age of 18 years, for the purpose of his education or welfare;

30g.for the purpose of preventing the spread of an infectious or contagious disease;

31h.in the case of a person who is, or is reasonably suspected to be, of unsound mind or addicted to drugs or alcohol, for the purpose of his care or treatment or the protection of the community;

32i.for the purpose of preventing the unlawful entry of that person into Mauritius, or for the purpose of effecting the expulsion, extradition, or other lawful removal of that person from Mauritius or the taking of proceedings relating thereto;

33j.upon reasonable suspicion of his being likely to commit breaches of the peace; or

34k.in execution of the order of the Commissioner of Police, upon reasonable suspicion of his having engaged in, or being about to engage in, activities likely to cause a serious threat to public safety or public order.

352. Any person who is arrested or detained shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands, of the reasons for his arrest or detention.

363. Any person who is arrested or detained

37a.for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court;

38b.upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit a criminal offence; or

39c.upon reasonable suspicion of his being likely to commit breaches of the peace,

40and who is not released, shall be afforded reasonable facilities to consult a legal representative of his own choice and shall be brought without undue delay before a court; and if any person arrested or detained as mentioned in paragraph (b) is not tried within a reasonable time, then, without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against him, he shall be released either unconditionally or upon reasonable conditions, including, in particular, such conditions as are reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears at a later date for trial or for proceedings preliminary to trial; and if any person arrested or detained as mentioned in paragraph (c) is not brought before a court within a reasonable time in order that the court may decide whether to order him to give security for his good behaviour, then, without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against him, he shall be released unconditionally.

413A. a. Notwithstanding subsection (3), where a person is arrested or detained for an offence related to terrorism or a drug offence, he shall not, in relation to such offences related to terrorism, or drug offences, as may be prescribed by an Act of Parliament, be admitted to bail until the final determination of the proceedings brought against him, where

42i.he has already been convicted of an offence related to terrorism or a drug offence; or

43ii.he is arrested or detained for an offence related to terrorism or a drug offence during the period that he has been released on bail after he has been charged with having committed an offence related to terrorism or a drug offence.

44b. A Bill for an Act of Parliament to prescribe the offences related to terrorism or drug offences under paragraph (a) or to amend or repeal such an Act shall not be passed by the Assembly unless it is supported at the final voting in the Assembly by the votes of not less than three quarters of all the members of the Assembly.

454. Where a person is detained in pursuance of any such provision of law as is referred to in subsection (1)(k)

46a.he shall, as soon as is reasonably practicable and, in any case not more than 7 days after the commencement of his detention, be furnished with a statement in writing in a language that he understands specifying in detail the grounds upon which he is detained;

47b.not more than 7 days after the commencement of his detention, a notification shall be published in the Gazette stating that he has been detained and giving particulars of the provision of law under which his detention is authorised;

48c.not more than 14 days after the commencement of his detention and thereafter during his detention at intervals of not more than 30 days, his case shall be reviewed by an independent and impartial tribunal consisting of a chairman and 2 other members appointed by the Judicial and Legal Service Commission, the chairman being appointed from among persons who are entitled to practise as a barrister or as an attorney in Mauritius;

49d.he shall be afforded reasonable facilities to consult a legal representative of his own choice who shall be permitted to make representations to the tribunal appointed for the review of his case;

50e.at the hearing of his case by the tribunal, he shall be permitted to appear in person or by a legal representative of his own choice and, unless the tribunal otherwise directs, the hearing shall be held in public;

51f.at the conclusion of any review by a tribunal in pursuance of this subsection in any case, the tribunal shall announce its decision in public, stating whether or not there is, in its opinion, sufficient cause for the detention, and if, in its opinion, there is not sufficient cause, the detained person shall forthwith be released and if during the period of 6 months from his release he is again detained the tribunal established for the review of his case shall not decide that, in its opinion, there is sufficient cause for the further detention unless it is satisfied that new and reasonable grounds for the detention exist.

525. Any person who is unlawfully arrested or detained by any other person shall be entitled to compensation from that other person.

536. in the exercise of any functions conferred upon him for the purposes of subsection(1)(k), the Commissioner of Police shall not be subject to the direction or control of any other person or authority.

547. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (3) to the extent that the law in question authorises a police officer not below the rank of superintendent of police to direct that any person arrested upon reasonable suspicion of having committed any offence related to terrorism or any drug dealing offence be detained in police custody for a period not exceeding 36 hours from his arrest without having access to any person other than a police officer not below the rank of Inspector or a Government Medical Officer.

558. A Bill for an Act of Parliament to amend or to repeat the provisions of any law with regard to the keeping of a custody record and video recording in respect of the detention of any person for a drug offence shall not be passed by the Assembly unless it is supported at the final voting in the Assembly by the votes of not less than three quarters of all the members of the Assembly.

566. PROTECTION FROM SLAVERY AND FORCED LABOUR

571. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.

582. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.

593. For the purposes of this section, the expression "forced labour" does not include -

60a.any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;

61b.labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;

62c.any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service; or

63d.any labour required during a period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable, in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.

647. PROTECTION FROM INHUMAN TREATMENT

651. No person shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading punishment or other such treatment.

662. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question authorises the infliction of any description of punishment that was lawful in Mauritius on 11 March 1964.

678. PROTECTION FROM DEPRIVATION OF PROPERTY

681. No property of any description shall be compulsorily taken possession of, and no interest in or right over property of any description shall be compulsorily acquired, except where

69a.the taking of possession or acquisition is necessary or expedient in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town and country planning, the development or utilisation of any property in such a manner as to promote the public benefit or the social and economic well-being of the people of Mauritius; and

70b.there is reasonable justification for the causing of any hardship that may result to any person having an interest in or right over the property; and

71c.provision is made by a law applicable to that taking of possession or acquisition

72i.for the payment of adequate compensation; and

73ii.securing to any person having an interest in or right over the property aright of access to the Supreme Court, whether direct or on appeal from any other authority, for the determination of his interest or right, the legality of the taking of possession or acquisition of the property, interest or right, and the amount of any compensation to which he is entitled, and for the purpose of obtaining payment of that compensation.

742. No person who is entitled to compensation under this section, other than a resident of Mauritius, shall be prevented from remitting, within a reasonable time after he has received any amount of that compensation, the whole of that amount (free from any deduction, charge or tax made or levied in respect of its remission) to any country of his choice outside Mauritius.

753. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (2) to the extent that the law in question authorises

76a.the attachment, by order of a court, of any amount of compensation to which a person is entitled in satisfaction of the judgment of a court or pending the determination of civil proceedings to which he is a party;

77b.the imposition of reasonable restrictions on the manner in which any amount of compensation is to be remitted; or

78c.the imposition of any deduction, charge or tax that is made or levied generally in respect of the remission of money from Mauritius and that is not discriminatory within the meaning of section 16(3).

794. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1)

80a.to the extent that the law in question makes provision for the taking of possession or acquisition of property

81i.in satisfaction of any tax, rate or due;

82ii.by way of penalty for breach of the law or forfeiture inconsequence of a breach of the law or in consequence of the inability of a drug-trafficker or a person who has enriched himself by fraudulent and/or corrupt means to show that he has acquired the property by lawful means;

83iii.as an incident of a lease, tenancy, mortgage, charge, sale, pledge or contract;

84iv.in the execution of judgments or orders of courts;

85v.by reason of its being in a dangerous state or injurious to the health of human beings, animals, trees or plants;

86vi.in consequence of any law with respect to the limitations of actions or acquisitive prescription;

87vii.for so long only as may be necessary for the purposes of any examination, investigation, trial or inquiry or, in the case of land, the carrying out on it -

88A.of work of soil conservation or the conservation of other natural resources; or

89B.of agricultural development or improvement that the owner or occupier of the land has been required, and has, without reasonable and lawful excuse, refused or failed to carry out,

90except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under its authority is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society; or

91b.to the extent that the law in question makes provision for the taking of possession or acquisition of

92i.enemy property;

93ii.property of a person who has died or is unable, by reason of legal incapacity, to administer it himself, for the purpose of its administration for the benefit of the persons entitled to the beneficial interest in it;

94iii.property of a person adjudged bankrupt or a body corporate in liquidation, for the purpose of its administration for the benefit of the creditors of the bankrupt or body corporate and, subject thereto, for the benefit of other persons entitled to the beneficial interest in the property; or

95iv.property subject to a trust, for the purpose of vesting the property in persons appointed as trustees under the instrument creating the trust or by a court or, by order of a court, for the purpose of giving effect to the trust; or

96c.to the extent that the law in question -

97i.makes provision for the payment of the amount for which the property is to be compulsorily taken possession of, together with interest at the legal rate in equal yearly instalments, within a period not exceeding 10 years;

98ii.fixes the amount for which the property is to be compulsorily taken possession of or acquired or makes provision for the determination of that amount in accordance with such principles as may be prescribed.

994A. a. Notwithstanding subsection (1)(c), section 17 or any other provision of the Constitution, no law relating to the compulsory acquisition or taking of possession of any property shall be called in question in any court if it has been supported at the final voting in the Assembly by the votes of not less than three quarters of all the members of the Assembly.

100b. No law under paragraph (a) shall be amended or repealed otherwise than by a Bill which has been supported at the final voting in the Assembly by the votes of not less than three quarters of all the members of the Assembly.

1015. Nothing in this section shall affect the making or operation of any law so far as it provides for the vesting in the State of the ownership of underground water or unextracted minerals.

1026. Nothing in this section shall affect the making or operation of any law for the compulsory taking of possession in the public interest of any property, or the compulsory acquisition in the public interest of any property, or the compulsory acquisition in the public interest of any interest in or right over property, where that property, interest or right is held by a body corporate established by law for public purposes, in which no money has been invested other than money provided from public funds.

1039. PROTECTION FOR PRIVACY OF HOME AND OTHER PROPERTY

1041. Except with his own consent, no person shall be subjected to the search of his person or his property or the entry by others on his premises.

1052. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision

106a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town and country planning, the development or utilisation of mineral resources or the development or utilisation of any other property in such a manner as to promote the public benefit;

107b.for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons;

108c.to enable an officer or agent of the Government or a local authority, or a body corporate established by law for a public purpose, to enter on the premises of any person in order to value those premises for the purpose of any tax, rate or due, or in order to carry out work connected with any property that is lawfully on those premises and that belongs to the Government, the local authority or that body corporate, as the case may be; or

109d.to authorise, for the purpose of enforcing the judgment or order of a court in any civil proceedings, the search of any person or property by order of a court or the entry upon any premises by such order, except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under its authority is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

11010. PROVISIONS TO SECURE PROTECTION OF LAW

1111. Where any person is charged with a criminal offence, then, unless the charge is withdrawn, the case shall be afforded a fair hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial court established

1122. Every person who is charged with a criminal offence

113a.shall be presumed to be innocent until he is proved or has pleaded guilty;

114b.shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands and, in detail, of the nature of the offence;

115c.shall be given adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;

116d.shall be permitted to defend himself in person or, at his own expense, by a legal representative of his own choice or, where so prescribed, by a legal representative provided at the public expense;

117e.shall be afforded facilities to examine, in person or by his legal representative, the witnesses called by the prosecution before any court, and to obtain the attendance and carry out the examination of witnesses to testify on his behalf before that court on the same conditions, as those applying to witnesses called by the prosecution; and

118f.shall be permitted to have without payment the assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand the language used at the trial of the offence, and, except with his own consent, the trial shall not take place in his absence unless he so conducts himself as to render the continuance of the proceedings in his presence impracticable and the court has ordered him to be removed and, the trial to proceed. in his absence.

1193. Where a person is tried for any criminal offence, the accused person or any person authorised by him in that behalf shall, if he so requires and subject to payment of such reasonable fee as may be specified by or under any law, be given within a reasonable time after judgment a copy for the use of the accused person of any record of the proceedings made by or on behalf of the court.

1204. No person shall be held to be guilty of a criminal offence on account of any act or omission that did not, at the time it took place, constitute such an offence, and no penalty shall be imposed for any criminal offence that is severer in degree or description than the maximum penalty that might have been imposed for that offence at the time when it was committed.

1215. No person who shows that he has been tried by a competent court for a criminal offence and either convicted or acquitted shall again be tried for that offence or for any other criminal offence of which he could have been convicted at the trial of that offence, except upon the order of a superior court in the course of appeal or review proceedings relating to the conviction or acquittal.

1226. No person shall be tried for a criminal offence if he shows that he has been granted a pardon, by competent authority, for that offence.

1237. No person who is tried for a criminal offence shall be compelled to give evidence at the trial.

1248. Any court or other authority required or empowered by law to determine the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation shall be established by law and shall be independent and impartial, and where proceedings for such a determination are instituted by any person before such a court or other authority, the case shall be given a fair hearing within a reasonable time.

1259. Except with the agreement of all the parties, all proceedings of every court and proceedings for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation before any other authority, including the announcement of the decision of the court or other authority, shall be held in public.

12610. Nothing in subsection (9) shall prevent the court or other authority from excluding from the proceedings (except the announcement of the decision of the court or other authority) persons other than the parties and their legal representatives, to such extent as the court or other authority

127a.may by law be empowered so to do and may consider necessary or expedient in circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice, or in interlocutory proceedings, or in the interests of public morality, the welfare of persons under the age of 18 years or the protection of the privacy of persons concerned in the proceedings; or

128b.may by law be empowered or required to do so in the interests of defence, public safety or public order.

12911. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of

130a.subsection (2)(a), to the extent that the law in question imposes upon any person charged with a criminal offence the burden of proving particular facts;

131aa.subsection (2)(d), to the extent that the law in question authorises a police officer to direct that any person arrested upon reasonable suspicion of having committed any offence offence related to terrorism or any drug dealing offence be detained in police custody for a period not exceeding 36 hours from his arrest without having access to any person other than a police officer not below the rank of Inspector or a Government Medical Officer.

132b.subsection (2)(e), to the extent that the law in question imposes conditions that must be satisfied if witnesses called to testify on behalf of an accused person are to be paid their expenses out of public funds;

133c.subsection (5), to the extent that the law in question authorises a court to try a member of a disciplined force for a criminal offence, notwithstanding any trial and conviction or acquittal of that member under the disciplinary law of that force, so, however, that any court so trying such a member and convicting him shall, in sentencing him to any punishment, take into account any punishment awarded him under that disciplinary law.

13412. In this section 'criminal offence" means a crime, misdemeanour or contravention punishable under the law of Mauritius.

13511. PROTECTION OF FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE

1361. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of conscience, and for the purposes of this section, that freedom includes freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and both in public and in private, to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance.

1372. Except with his own consent (or, if he is a minor, the consent of his guardian), no person attending any place of education shall be required to receive religious instruction or to take part in or attend any religious ceremony or observance if that instruction, ceremony or observance relates to a religion that he does not profess.

1383. No religious community or denomination shall be prevented from making provision for the giving, by persons lawfully in Mauritius, of religious instruction to persons of that community or denomination in the course of any education provided by that community or denomination.

1394. No person shall be compelled to take any oath that is contrary to his religion or belief or to take any oath in a manner that is contrary to his religion or belief.

1405. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision

141a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or

142b.for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons, including the right to observe and practise any religion or belief without the unsolicited intervention of persons professing any other religion or belief,

143except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under its authority is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

14412. PROTECTION OF FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

1451. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, that is to say, freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart ideas and information without interference, and freedom from interference with his correspondence.

1462. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision

147a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health;

148b.for the purpose of protecting the reputations, rights and freedoms of other persons or the private lives of persons concerned in legal proceedings, preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, maintaining the authority and independence of the courts, or regulating the technical administration or the technical operation of telephony, telegraphy, posts, wireless broadcasting, television, public exhibitions or public entertainments; or

149c.for the imposition of restrictions upon public officers, except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under its authority is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

15013. PROTECTION OF FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY AND ASSOCIATION

1511. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and, in particular, to form or belong to, trade unions or other associations for the protection of his interests.

1522. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision

153a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health;

154b.for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons; or

155c.for the imposition of restrictions upon public officers,

156except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under its authority is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

15714. PROTECTION OF FREEDOM TO ESTABLISH SCHOOLS

1581. No religious denomination and no religious, social, ethnic or cultural association or group shall be prevented from establishing and maintaining schools at its own expense.

1592. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1) to, the extent that the law in question makes provision

160a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or

161b.for regulating such schools in the interests of persons receiving instruction in them,

162except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under its authority is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

1633. No person shall be prevented from sending to any such school a child of whom that person is parent or guardian by reason only that the school is not a school established or maintained by the Government.

1644. In subsection (3), "child" includes a stepchild and a child adopted in a manner recognised by law, and "parent" shall be construed accordingly.

16515. PROTECTION OF FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT

1661. No person shall be deprived of his freedom of movement, and for the purposes of this section, that freedom means the right to move freely throughout Mauritius, the right to reside in any part of Mauritius, the right to enter Mauritius, the right to leave Mauritius and immunity from expulsion from Mauritius.

1672. Any restriction on a person's freedom of movement that is involved in his lawful detention shall not be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section.

1683. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision

169a.for the imposition of restrictions on the movement or residence within Mauritius of any person in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health;

170b.for the imposition of restrictions on the right of any person to leave Mauritius in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or, public health or of securing compliance with any international obligation of the Government, particulars of which have been laid before the Assembly;

171c.for the imposition of restrictions, by order of a court, on the movement or residence within Mauritius of any person either in consequence of his having been found guilty of a criminal offence under the law of Mauritius or for the purpose of ensuring that he appears before a court at a later date for trial in respect of such a criminal offence or for proceedings preliminary to trial or for proceedings relating to his extradition or other lawful removal from Mauritius;

172d.for the imposition of restrictions on the movement or residence within Mauritius of any person who is not a citizen of Mauritius or the exclusion or expulsion from Mauritius of any such person;

173e.for the imposition of restrictions on the acquisition or use by any person of land or other property in Mauritius;

174f.for the removal of a person from Mauritius to be tried outside Mauritius for a criminal offence or to undergo imprisonment outside Mauritius in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted; or

175g.for the imposition of restrictions on the right of any person to leave Mauritius in order to secure the fulfilment of any obligations imposed upon that person by law,

176except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under its authority is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

1774. Where any person whose freedom of movement has been restricted in pursuance of subsection (3)(a) or (b) so requests

178a.he shall, as soon as is reasonably practicable and in any case not more than 7 days after the making of the request, be furnished with a statement in writing in a language that he understands, specifying the grounds for the imposition of the restriction;

179b.not more than 14 days after the making of the request, and thereafter during the continuance of the restriction at intervals of not more than 6 months, his case shall be reviewed by an independent and impartial tribunal consisting of a chairman and 2 other members appointed by the Judicial and Legal Service Commission, the chairman being appointed from among persons who are entitled to practise as a barrister or as an attorney in Mauritius;

180c.he or a legal representative of his own choice shall be permitted to make representations to the tribunal appointed for the review of his case;

181d.on, any review by a tribunal in pursuance of this subsection in any case, the tribunal may make recommendations concerning the necessity or expediency of continuing the restriction in question to the authority by which it was ordered and that authority shall act in accordance with any recommendation for the removal or relaxation of the restriction:

182Provided that a person whose freedom of movement has been restricted by virtue of a restriction that is applicable to persons generally or to general classes of persons shall not make a request under this subsection unless he has first obtained the consent of the Supreme Court.

18316. PROTECTION FROM DISCRIMINATION

1841. Subject to subsections (4), (5) and (7), no law shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

1852. Subject to subsections (6), (7) and (8), no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting in the performance of any public function conferred by any law or otherwise in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.

1863. In this section, 'discriminatory" means affording different treatment to different persons attributable wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, caste, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages that are not accorded to persons of another such description.

1874. Subsection (1) shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision

188a.for the appropriation of revenues or other funds of Mauritius;

189aa.for a minimum number of candidates for election to local authoritiesto be of a particularsex, with a view to ensuring adequate representation of each sex on a local authority;

190b.with respect to persons who are not citizens of Mauritius; or

191c.for the application, in the case of persons of any such description as is mentioned in subsection (3) (or of persons connected with such persons), of the law with respect to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death or other like matters that is the personal law applicable to persons of that description.

1925. Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1) to the extent that it makes provision with respect to standards or qualifications (not being standards or qualifications specifically relating to race, caste, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex) to be required of any person who is appointed to any office in the public service, any office in a disciplined force, any office in the service of a local authority or any office in a body corporate established directly by any law for public purposes.

1936. Subsection (2) shall not apply to anything which is expressly or by necessary implication authorised to be done by any such provision of law as is referred to in subsection (4) or (5).

1947. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in subsection (3) may be subjected to any restriction on the rights and freedoms guaranteed by sections 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15, being such a restriction as is authorised by section 9(2), 11(5), 12(2), 13(2), 14(2) or 15(3), as the case may be.

1958. Subsection (2) shall not affect any discretion relating to the institution, conduct or discontinuance of civil or criminal proceedings in any court that is vested in any person by or under this Constitution or any other law.

19617. ENFORCEMENT OF PROTECTIVE PROVISIONS

1971. Where any person alleges that any of sections 3 to 16 has been, is being or is likely to be contravened in relation to him, then, without prejudice to any other action with respect to the same matter that is lawfully available, that person may apply to the Supreme Court for redress.

1982. The Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction to hear and determine any application made by any person in pursuance of subsection (1), and may make such orders, issue such writs and give such directions as it may consider appropriate for the purpose of enforcing, or securing the enforcement of, any of sections 3 to 16 to the protection of which the person concerned is entitled:

199Provided that the Supreme Court shall not exercise its powers under this subsection if it is satisfied that adequate means of redress for the contravention alleged are or have been available to the person concerned under any other law.

2003. The Supreme Court shall have such powers in addition to those conferred by this section as may be prescribed for the purpose of enabling that court more effectively to exercise the jurisdiction conferred upon it by this section.

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