1The following text is from the Constitute Project, who through a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, has generously made this content available for use for noncommercial purposes. Follow (right-click) the links and read the annotation to learn more. 1
5Due to colonial intrusion, the Nation lost her sovereign power in 1885. The National people launched anti-colonialist struggles and National liberation struggles, with unity in strength, sacrificing lives and hence the Nation became an independent sovereign State again on 4th January 1948.
6In order to gain independence speedily, the Constitution was hastily drafted, and it was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 24th September 1947. After attaining independence, Parliamentary Democracy System was practised in the State in accord with the Constitution of the Union of Myanmar. However, as democratic system could not be effectively materialized, the new Constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Myanmar was drafted based on the single party system, and after holding a National Referendum, a socialist democratic State was set up in 1974. The Constitution came to an end because of the general situation occurred in 1988.
9Persons who are well experienced in various aspects of politics, security, administration, economics, social and law as well as National races representatives of all townships in the Nation took part in the National Convention.
10Despite many difficulties and disturbances encountered the National Convention, it was unwaveringly reconvened in 2004 in accord with the seven-step Roadmap adopted in 2003. As the National Convention was able to adopt the Basic Principles and Detailed Basic Principles for formulating a Constitution, it successfully concluded on 3rd September 2007.
3911. a. The three branches of sovereign power namely, legislative power, executive power and judicial power are separated, to the extent possible, and exert reciprocal control, check and balance among themselves.
4112. a. The legislative power of the Union is shared among the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, Region Hluttaws and State Hluttaws. Legislative power stipulated by this Constitution shall be shared to the Self-Administered Areas.
42b. The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw consisting of two Hluttaws, one Hluttaw elected on the basis of township as well as population, and the other on an equal number of representatives elected from Regions and States.
4414. The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the Region Hluttaws and the State Hluttaws include the Defence Services personnel as Hluttaw representatives nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services in numbers stipulated by this Constitution.
4717. a. The executive power of the Union is shared among the Pyidaungsu, Regions and States; Self-Administrative power shall be shared between Self-Administered Areas as prescribed by this Constitution.
48b. In the executive of the Union, Regions, States, Union Territory, Self-Administered Areas and districts, Defence Services personnel, nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services to undertake responsibilities of the defence, security, border administration, so forth, shall be included.
49c. For National races of which representatives are so permitted to participate in legislature of Regions, States or Self-Administered Areas in accord with Section 15, such representatives are to be permitted to participate, mainly, to undertake their National races affairs.
5018. a. The judicial power of the Union is shared among the Supreme Court of the Union, High Courts of the Regions, High Courts of the States and Courts of different levels including Courts of Self-Administered Areas.
78b. The Union shall enact necessary laws for Civil Services personnel to have security and sufficiency of food, clothing and shelter, to get maternity benefits for married women in service, and to ease livelihood for welfare of retired Service personnel.
9234. Every citizen is equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to freely profess and practise religion subject to public order, morality or health and to the other provisions of this Constitution.
95a.permit all economic forces such as the State, regional organizations, cooperatives, joint-ventures, private individual, so forth, to take part in economic activities for the development of National economy;
10740. a. If there arises a state of emergency characterized by inability to perform executive functions in accord with the provisions of the Constitution in a Region or a State or a Self-Administered Area, the President is empowered to exercise executive power in that Region, State or Self-Administered Area and, if necessary in doing so, the President is empowered to exercise legislative powers concerning that Region, State or Self-Administered Area in accord with the provisions of this Constitution.
108b. If there arises or there is sufficient reason to arise a state of emergency endangering life and property of the people in a Region, State or Self-Administered Area, the Defence Services has the right, in accord with the provisions of this Constitution, to prevent that danger and provide protection.
109c. If there arises a state of emergency that could cause disintegration of the Union, disintegration of national solidarity and loss of sovereign power or attempts therefore by wrongful forcible means such as insurgency or violence, the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services has the right to take over and exercise State sovereign power in accord with the provisions of this Constitution.
11041. The Union practises independent, active and non-aligned foreign policy aimed at world peace and friendly relations with nations and upholds the principles of peaceful coexistence among nations.
11646. A Constitutional Tribunal shall be set up to interpret the provisions of the Constitution, to scrutinize whether or not laws enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the Region Hluttaws and the State Hluttaws and functions of executive authorities of Pyidaungsu, Regions, States and Self-Administered Areas are in conformity with the Constitution, to decide on disputes relating to the Constitution between Pyidaungsu and Regions, between Pyidaungsu and States, among Regions, among States, and between Regions or States and Self-Administered Areas and among Self-Administered Areas themselves, and to perform other duties prescribed in this Constitution.
11747. The Basic Principles set forth in this Chapter, and Chapter 8, Citizen, Fundamental Rights, and Duties of the Citizen, the term "Union" means person or body exercising the legislative or executive authority of the Union under this Constitution according as the context may require.
137b. If there arises a need to specify areas that have special situations concerning national defence, security, administration and economy, so forth, those areas may be prescribed as Union territories under the direct administration of the President after enacting law.
146h.If there are Self-Administrated Zone or Self-Administered Division in a Region or a State, those Self-Administered Divisions, Self-Administered Zones and Districts are organized as Region or State;
14852. a. If there arises a need to re-delineate the territorial boundary of the Union, the President shall firstly intimate the Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw to ask for the opinion of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw.
154d. In accord with the above-mentioned procedures, if either of the Hluttaws, or representatives from the Region or State involved in the territorial boundary concerned resolve against re-delineation, the opinion of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall be obtained. If three-fourths and above of the total number of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives cast assenting votes, the Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall inform the President to re-delineate the territorial boundary as necessary.
157b. In obtaining consent, re-delineation of the territorial boundary shall not be executed at all in the absence of assenting votes of more than half of the total number of the electorate residing within the township concerned.
158c. If more than half of the total number of eligible voters residing within the township concerned cast assenting vote for re-delineation of the territorial boundary, the consent of the Hluttaw representatives of the Region or State involved in the territorial boundary concerned shall be obtained.
159d. The President shall re-delineate the territorial boundary of the Region or State concerned with the consent of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, after obtaining the assenting votes of three-fourths and above of the total number of representatives from the Region or the State concerned.
161f. The President shall, as necessary, re-delineate the territorial boundary of a Region or a State if three-fourths and above of the total number of representatives in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw assent to the re-delineation of the territorial boundary.
16254. Where there arises a situation to alter or form the territorial boundary or change the name of a village, village-tract, ward, town, township or district of a Region, State, Self-Administered Division or Self-Administered Zone concerned, the President shall act, as necessary, upon the recommendation of the Chief Minister of the Region or State concerned.
179e.shall be a person who has resided continuously in the Union for at least 20 years up to the time of his election as President; Proviso: An official period of stay in a foreign country with the permission of the Union shall be counted as a residing period in the Union;
180f.shall he himself, one of the parents, the spouse, one of the legitimate children or their spouses not owe allegiance to a foreign power, not be subject of a foreign power or citizen of a foreign country. They shall not be persons entitled to enjoy the rights and privileges of a subject of a foreign government or citizen of a foreign country;
188d. The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw and a Body comprising the Heads and Deputy Heads of the two Hluttaws in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall scrutinize whether or not the Vice-Presidents possess the qualifications prescribed for the President.
195e. If a vacancy is filled for the President or the Vice-President for any reason, the term of office of the new President or the new Vice-President shall be up to the expiry of the original term of office.
19763. If the President or the Vice-Presidents are Hluttaw representatives, they shall be deemed to have resigned from their seats in that Hluttaw, and if the President or the Vice Presidents are the Civil Services personnel, they shall be deemed to have resigned or retired from their offices from the day of their election.
200"I ........... do solemnly and sincerely promise and declare that I will be loyal to the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and the citizens and hold always in esteem non-disintegration of the Union, non-disintegration of national solidarity and perpetuation of sovereignty.