Mobile users can only read ConText documents. Annotate this document on your computer or tablet.
Results

Constitution of Philippines (1987)

1The following text is from the Constitute Project, who through a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, has generously made this content available for use for noncommercial purposes. Follow (right-click) the links and read the annotation to learn more. 1

2


3Preamble

4We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

5ARTICLE I. NATIONAL TERRITORY

6The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.

7ARTICLE II. DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES PRINCIPLES

8PRINCIPLES

9SEC 1

10The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them.

11SEC 2

12The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equally, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations.

13SEC 3

14Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory.

15SEC 4

16The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law, to render personal military or civil service.

17SEC 5

18The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life, liberty, and property, and the promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the blessings of democracy.

19SEC 6

20The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.

21SEC 7

22The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other states the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest, and the right to self-determination.

23SEC 8

24The Philippines, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory.

25SEC 9

26The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an improved quality of life for all.

27SEC 10

28The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development.

29SEC 11

30The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights.

31SEC 12

32The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the young for civic efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the support of the Government.

33SEC 13

34The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs.

35SEC 14

36The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building, and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men.

37SEC 15

38The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them.

39SEC 16

40The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.

41SEC 17

42The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human liberation and development.

43SEC 18

44The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare.

45SEC 19

46The State shall develop a self-reliant and independent national economy effectively controlled by Filipinos.

47SEC 20

48The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector, encourages private enterprise, and provides incentives to needed investments.

49SEC 21

50The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform.

51SEC 22

52The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development.

53SEC 23

54The State shall encourage non-governmental, community-based, or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation.

55SEC 24

56The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building.

57SEC 25

58The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments.

59SEC 26

60The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service, and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law.

61SEC 27

62The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption.

63SEC 28

64Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest.

65ARTICLE III. BILL OF RIGHTS

66SEC 1

67No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.

68SEC 2

69The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.

70SEC 3

711. The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise as prescribed by law.

722. Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding.

73SEC 4

74No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances.

75SEC 5

76No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or political rights.

77SEC 6

78The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits prescribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law.

79SEC 7

80The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents, and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.

81SEC 8

82The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged.

83SEC 9

84Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation.

85SEC 10

86No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed.

87SEC 11

88Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty.

89SEC 12

901. Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be provided with one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of counsel.

912. No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation, or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be used against him. Secret detention places, solitary, incommunicado, or other similar forms of detention are prohibited.

923. Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be inadmissible in evidence against him.

934. The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions of violations of this section as well as compensation to and rehabilitation of victims of torture or similar practices, and their families.

94SEC 13

95All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient securities, or be released on recognizance as may be provided by law. The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. Excessive bail shall not be required.

96SEC 14

971. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law.

982. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and counsel, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a speedy, impartial, and public trial, to meet the witnesses face to face, and to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment, trial may proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused provided that he has been duly notified and his failure to appear is unjustifiable.

99SEC 15

100The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion or rebellion when the public safety requires it.

101SEC 16

102All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative bodies.

103SEC 17

104No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.

105SEC 18

1061. No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and aspirations.

1072. No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.

108SEC 19

1091. Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment inflicted. Neither shall death penalty be imposed, unless, for compelling reasons involving heinous crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua.

1102. The employment of physical, psychological, or degrading punishment against any prisoner or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by law.

111SEC 20

112No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax.

113SEC 21

114No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance, conviction or acquittal under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act.

115SEC 22

116No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted.

117ARTICLE IV. CITIZENSHIP

118SEC 1

119The following are citizens of the Philippines:

1201.Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution;

1212.Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines;

1223.Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and

1234.Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.

124SEC 2

125Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens.

126SEC 3

127Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law.

128SEC 4

129Citizens of the Philippines who marry aliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by their act or omission they are deemed, under the law, to have renounced it.

130SEC 5

131Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law.

132ARTICLE V. SUFFRAGE

133SEC 1

134Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law, who are at least eighteen years of age, and who shall have resided in the Philippines for at least one year and in the place wherein they propose to vote for at least six months immediately preceding the election. No literacy, property, or other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the exercise of suffrage.

135SEC 2

136The Congress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the ballot as well as a system for absentee voting by qualified Filipinos abroad.

137The Congress shall also design a procedure for the disabled and the illiterates to vote without the assistance of other persons. Until then, they shall be allowed to vote under existing laws and such rules as the Commission on Elections may promulgate to protect the secrecy of the ballot.

138ARTICLE VI. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT

139SEC 1

140The legislative power shall be vested in the Congress of the Philippines which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives, except to the extent reserved to the people by the provision on initiative and referendum.

141SEC 2

142The Senate shall be composed of twenty-four Senators who shall be elected at large by the qualified voters of the Philippines, as may be provided by law.

143SEC 3

144No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, and, on the day of the election, is at least thirty-five years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election.

145SEC 4

146The term of office of the Senators shall be six years and shall commence, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirteenth day of June next following their election.

147No Senator shall serve for more than two consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected.

148SEC 5

1491. The House of Representatives shall be composed of not more than two hundred and fifty members, unless otherwise fixed by law, who shall be elected from legislative districts apportioned among the provinces, cities, and the Metropolitan Manila area in accordance with the number of their respective inhabitants, and on the basis of a uniform and progressive ratio, and those who, as provided by law, shall be elected through a party-list system of registered national, regional, and sectoral parties of organizations.

1502. The party-list representatives shall constitute twenty per centum of the total number of representatives including those under the party list. For three consecutive terms after the ratification of this Constitution, one-half of the seats allocated to party-list representatives shall be filled, as provided by law, by selection or election from the labor, peasant, urban poor, indigenous cultural communities, women, youth, and such other sectors as may be provided by law, except the religious sector.

1513. Each legislative district shall comprise, as far as practicable, contiguous, compact, and adjacent territory. Each city with a population of at least two hundred fifty thousand, or each province, shall have at least one representative.

1524. Within three years following the return of every census, the Congress shall make a reapportionment of legislative districts based on the standards provided in this section.

153SEC 6

154No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, is at least twenty-five years of age, able to read and write, and, except the party-list representatives, a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected, and a resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the election.

155SEC 7

156The Members of the House of Representatives shall be elected for a term of three years which shall begin, unless otherwise provided by law, at noon on the thirtieth day of June next following their election.

157No Member of the House of Representatives shall serve for more than three consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be considered as an interruption in the continuity of his service for the full term for which he was elected.

158SEC 8

159Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election of the Senators and the Members of the House of Representatives shall be held on the second Monday of May.

160SEC 9

161In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the House of Representatives, a special election may be called to fill such vacancy in the manner prescribed by law, but the Senator or Member of the House of Representatives thus elected shall serve only for the unexpired term.

162SEC 10

163The salaries of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives shall be determined by law. No increase in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the full term of all the Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives approving such increase.

164SEC 11

165A Senator or Member of the House of Representatives shall, in all offenses punishable by not more than six years imprisonment, be privileged from arrest while the Congress is in session. No Member shall be questioned nor be held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in the Congress or in any committee thereof.

166SEC 12

167All Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives shall, upon assumption of office, make a full disclosure of their financial and business interests. They shall notify the House concerned of a potential conflict of interest that may arise from the filing of a proposed legislation of which they are authors.

168SEC 13

169No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may hold any other office or employment in the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries, during his term without forfeiting his seat. Neither shall he be appointed to any office which may have been created or the emoluments thereof increased during the term for which he was elected.

170SEC 14

171No Senator or Member of the House of Representatives may personally appear as counsel before any court of justice or before the Electoral Tribunals, or quasi-judicial and other administrative bodies. Neither shall he, directly or indirectly, be interested financially in any contract with, or in any franchise or special privilege granted by the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation, or its subsidiary, during his term of office. He shall not intervene in any matter before any office of the Government for his pecuniary benefit or where he may be called upon to act on account of his office.

172SEC 15

173The Congress shall convene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session, unless a different date is fixed by law, and shall continue to be in session for such number of days as it may determine until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. The President may call a special session at any time.

174SEC 16

1751. The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Representatives its Speaker, by a majority vote of all its respective Members.

176Each House shall choose such other officers as it may deem necessary.

1772. A majority of each House shall constitute a quorum to do business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day and may compel the attendance of absent Members in such manner, and under such penalties, as such House may provide.

1783. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds of all its Members, suspend or expel a Member. A penalty of suspension, when imposed, shall not exceed sixty days.

1794. Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may, in its judgment, affect national security; and the yeas and nays on any question shall, at the request of one-fifth of the Members present, be entered in the Journal.

180Each House shall also keep a Record of its proceedings.

1815. Neither House during the sessions of the Congress shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

182SEC 17

183The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of their respective Members. Each Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine Members, three of whom shall be Justices of the Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief Justice, and the remaining six shall be Members of the Senate or the House of Representatives, as the case may be, who shall be chosen on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and the parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. The senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman.

184SEC 18

185There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the President of the Senate, as ex officio Chairman, twelve Senators, and twelve Members of the House of Representatives, elected by each House on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. The Chairman of the Commission shall not vote, except in case of a tie. The Commission shall act on all appointments submitted to it within thirty session days of the Congress from their submission. The Commission shall rule by a majority vote of all the Members.

186SEC 19

187The Electoral Tribunals and the Commission on Appointments shall be constituted within thirty days after the Senate and the House of Representatives shall have been organized with the election of the President and the Speaker. The Commission on Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session, at the call of its Chairman or a majority of all its Members, to discharge such powers and functions as are herein conferred upon it.

188SEC 20

189The records and books of accounts of the Congress shall be preserved and be open to the public in accordance with law, and such books shall be audited by the Commission on Audit which shall publish annually an itemized list of amounts paid to and expenses incurred for each Member.

190SEC 21

191The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of its respective committees may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of procedure. The rights of persons appearing in or affected by such inquiries shall be respected.

192SEC 22

193The heads of departments may upon their own initiative, with the consent of the President, or upon the request of either House, as the rules of each House shall provide, appear before and be heard by such House on any matter pertaining to their departments. Written questions shall be submitted to the President of the Senate or the Speaker of the House of Representatives at least three days before their scheduled appearance. Interpellations shall not be limited to written questions, but may cover matters related thereto. When the security of the State or the public interest so requires and the President so states in writing, the appearance shall be conducted in executive session.

194SEC 23

1951. The Congress, by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses in joint session assembled, voting separately, shall have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war.

1962. In times of war or other national emergency, the Congress may, by law, authorize the President, for a limited period and subject to such restrictions as it may prescribe, to exercise powers necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. Unless sooner withdrawn by resolution of the Congress, such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof.

197SEC 24

198All appropriation, revenue or tariff bills, bills authorizing increase of the public debt, bills of local application, and private bills shall originate exclusively in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments.

199SEC 25

2001. The Congress may not increase the appropriations recommended by the President for the operation of the Government as specified in the budget. The form, content, and manner of preparation of the budget shall be prescribed by law.

Jump to Passage Number
Keyboard Shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts

J Go to Next passage
K Go to Previous passage
P Jump to a passage
? Display keyboard shortcuts
Q Display Table of Contents
ESC Close Annotation / Discussion Sidebar

Add an annotation

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
  • Image must be under 2MB and have extension .jpg, .jpeg, .png, or .gif. Remove image
  • Theoretical/Philosophical
  • Historical Commentary
  • Constitutional Interpretation
  • Current Events
  • International Perspectives
  • Other
  • separation of powers
  • rules
  • Rufus King
  • slave
  • slave labor
  • slavery
  • slave trade
  • Revolution
  • republicanism
  • presidency
  • Oliver Ellsworth
  • record
  • records
  • republican
  • representation
  • slaves
  • states
  • William Jackson
  • Western Territory
  • Virginia Plan
  • taxes
  • taxation
  • three-fifths clause
  • twenty-year compromise
  • vice president
  • U.S. Supreme Court
  • North Carolina
  • new states
  • delegates
  • Delaware
  • contract clause
  • Dred Scott
  • due process
  • Elbridge Gerry
  • economics
  • Congress
  • confederation
  • Antifederalist
  • anti-slavery
  • Articles of Confederation
  • Bill of Rights
  • confederacy
  • compromise
  • electoral college
  • failures
  • Luther Martin
  • legislature
  • judicial branch
  • Magna Carta
  • morality
  • New Jersey Plan
  • navigation acts
  • journal
  • John Dickinson
  • Federalist
  • federalism
  • General Pinckney
  • George Washington
  • James Madison
  • international trade
  • 3/5 clause
Add a Reference