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Table of Contents

  1. Preamble
  2. CHAPTER I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
  3. CHAPTER II. THE KING
  4. CHAPTER III. RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES OF THE THAI PEOPLE
  5. PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
  6. PART 2. EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW
  7. PART 3. PERSONAL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES
  8. PART 4. RIGHTS TO ACCESS THE JUDICIAL PROCESS
  9. PART 5. RIGHTS IN PROPERTY
  10. PART 6. RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES OF OCCUPATION
  11. PART 7. LIBERTY OF EXPRESSION OF INDIVIDUALS AND MASS MEDIA
  12. PART 8. RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES IN EDUCATION
  13. PART 9. RIGHTS TO RECEIVE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE AND STATE WELFARE
  14. PART 10. RIGHTS TO RECEIVE INFORMATION AND LODGE COMPLAINTS
  15. PART 11. FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY AND ASSOCIATION
  16. PART 12. COMMUNITY RIGHTS
  17. PART 13. RIGHTS TO PROTECT THE CONSTITUTION
  18. CHAPTER IV. DUTIES OF THE THAI PEOPLE
  19. CHAPTER V. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF FUNDAMENTAL STATE POLICIES
  20. PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
  21. PART 2. POLICY DIRECTIVE ON THE SECURITY OF THE STATE
  22. PART 3. POLICY DIRECTIVE ON ADMINISTRATION OF THE STATE AFFAIRS
  23. PART 4. POLICY DIRECTIVE ON RELIGION, SOCIAL, PUBLIC HEALTH, EDUCATION AND CULTURE
  24. PART 5. POLICY DIRECTIVE ON LEGAL AFFAIRS AND JUSTICE
  25. PART 6. POLICY DIRECTIVE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS
  26. PART 7. POLICY DIRECTIVE ON ECONOMICS
  27. PART 8. POLICY DIRECTIVE ON LAND, NATURAL RESOURCE, AND ENVIRONMENT
  28. PART 9. POLICY DIRECTIVE ON SCIENCES, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, AND ENERGY
  29. PART 10. BASIC POLICY ON CITIZENS’ PARTICIPATION
  30. CHAPTER VI. THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  31. PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
  32. PART 2. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
  33. PART 3. THE SENATE
  34. PART 4. PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO BOTH HOUSES
  35. PART 5. JOINT MEETINGS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
  36. PART 6. LEGISLATING ORGANIC BILLS
  37. PART 7. LEGISLATIVE PROCESS
  38. PART 8. CONTROL OF ENACTMENT CONTRAVENING THE CONSTITUTION
  39. CHAPTER VII. CITIZEN PARTICIPATION People’s Direct Political Participation
  40. Chapter VIII. Money, Finance and Budget
  41. Chapter IX. The Council of Ministers
  42. CHAPTER X. THE COURTS
  43. PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
  44. PART 2. CONSTITUTIONAL COURT
  45. PART 3. COURTS OF JUSTICE
  46. PART 4. ADMINISTRATIVE COURTS
  47. PART 5. MILITARY COURTS
  48. CHAPTER XI. ORGANIZATIONS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION
  49. PART 1. INDEPENDENT ORGANIZATIONS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION
  50. 1. ELECTION COMMISSION
  51. 2. OMBUDSMEN
  52. 3. NATIONAL COUNTER CORRUPTION COMMISSION
  53. 4. STATE AUDIT COMMISSION
  54. PART 2. OTHER ORGANIZATIONS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION
  55. 1. PROSECUTION ORGANIZATION
  56. 2. NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
  57. 3. NATIONAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ADVISORY COUNCIL
  58. CHAPTER XII. INSPECTION OF THE EXERCISE OF STATE POWER
  59. PART 1. SCRUTINY OF ASSETS
  60. PART 2. ACTS DETRIMENTAL TO PUBLIC INTERESTS (ACTS OF CONFLICT OF INTEREST
  61. PART 3. REMOVAL FROM OFFICE
  62. PART 4. CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS AGAINST PERSONS HOLDING POLITICAL POSITIONS
  63. CHAPTER XIII. MORALITY OF PERSONS HOLDING POLITICAL POSITIONS, GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
  64. CHAPTER XIV. LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  65. CHAPTER XV. AMENDMENT OF CONSTITUTION
  66. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS

Constitution of Thailand (2007)

1The following text is from the Constitute Project, who through a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, has generously made this content available for use for noncommercial purposes. Follow (right-click) the links and read the annotation to learn more. 1

2


3Preamble

4Thailand has been under the rule of democratic government with the King as head of the state for more than 75 years, during which several constitutions were promulgated and amended. To ensure suitability with the situation in the country and change of time and by virtue of the provisions of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim Edition) of B.E. 2549 on the establishment of the Constitutional Drafting Assembly and Constitution Drafting Committee in charge of drafting a new Constitution to direct the guidance for the administration of the country in the future, and people have been allowed to extensively express their views and opinions about the new charter. Views and opinions of the people have been gathered for use in drafting of the new Constitution as prescribed by the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim Edition) of B.E. 2549.

5The major objectives of the new draft Constitution are to further promote and protect people’s right and liberty, encourage people’s roles and participation in the administration of the country, concretely check and cross-examine the use of the state power; provide the mechanisms of political institution in both the legislative and administrative branches with well-balanced and effective under the democratic parliamentary form of administration; support honesty and impartial operations of courts and independent organizations; and above all, to emphasize the values and significance of morality, ethics and good governance as virtuous guidance for the country’s affairs.

6After the completion of drafting of the new Constitution, the Constitution Drafting Assembly has presented the draft charter to the people and held a referendum, the first of its kind in the country, to allow them to vote whether to approve this whole constitution. The referendum result is that the majority of the eligible voters who have come to vote approved for the enactment of this newly draft constitution.

7President of the National Legislative Assembly has graciously presented this draft constitution to the King for His signature for its enactment as the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand. With the King’s opinion, the royal permission has been granted in compliance to the approval of majority of the people.

8By the Royal Command, this Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand is now enacted to replace the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Interim Edition) of B.E. 2549, dated October 1, B.E. 2549, as of this announcement day.

9Be Thai people in harmony and unity in order to maintain this Constitution of Kingdom of Thailand as to its will to maintain the democratic regime for the happiness of all Thai people.

10CHAPTER I. GENERAL PROVISIONS

11SECTION 1

12Thailand is one and indivisible Kingdom.

13SECTION 2

14Thailand adopts a democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the State.

15SECTION 3

16The sovereign power belongs to the Thai people. The King as Head of the State shall exercise such power through the National Assembly, the Council of Ministers and the Courts in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.

17Duty performed by the National Assembly, the Council of Ministers, the Courts, as well as the constitutional-mandated organizations and the state agencies shall in compliance to the legal justice principle.

18SECTION 4

19The human dignity, right, liberty and equality of the people shall be protected.

20SECTION 5

21The Thai people, irrespective of their origins, sexes or religions, shall enjoy equal protection under this Constitution.

22SECTION 6

23The Constitution is the supreme law of the State. The provisions of any law, rule or regulation, which are contrary to or inconsistent with this Constitution, shall be unenforceable.

24SECTION 7

25Whenever no provision under this Constitution is applicable to any case, it shall be decided in accordance with the constitutional practice in the democratic regime of government with the King as Head of the State.

26CHAPTER II. THE KING

27SECTION 8

28The King shall be enthroned in a position of revered worship and shall not be violated.

29No person shall expose the King to any sort of accusation or action.

30SECTION 9

31The King is a Buddhist and Upholder of religions.

32SECTION 10

33The King holds the position of Head of the Thai Armed Forces.

34SECTION 11

35The King has the prerogative to create titles and confer decorations.

36SECTION 12

37The King selects and appoints qualified persons to be the President of the Privy Council and not more than eighteen Privy Councilors to constitute the Privy Council.

38The Privy Council has a duty to render such advice to the King on all matters pertaining to His functions as He may consult, and has other duties as provided in this Constitution.

39SECTION 13

40The selection and appointment or the removal of a Privy Councilor shall depend entirely upon the King's pleasure.

41The President of the National Assembly shall countersign the Royal Command appointing or removing the President of the Privy Council.

42The President of the Privy Council shall countersign the Royal Command appointing or removing other Privy Councilors.

43SECTION 14

44A Privy Councilor shall not be a member of the House of Representatives, senator, Election Commissioner, Ombudsman, member of the National Human Rights Commission, judge of the Constitutional Court, judge of an Administrative Court, member of the National Counter Corruption Commission, member of the State Audit Council, Government official holding a permanent position or receiving a salary, official of a State enterprise, other State official or holder of other position of member or official of a political party, and must not manifest loyalty to any political party.

45SECTION 15

46Before taking office, a Privy Councilor shall make a solemn declaration before the King in the following words:

47"I, (name of the declarer), do solemnly declare that I will be loyal to His Majesty the King and will faithfully perform my duties in the interests of the country and of the people. I will also uphold and observe the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand in every respect."

48SECTION 16

49A Privy Councilor vacates office upon death, resignation or removal by a Royal Command.

50SECTION 17

51The appointment and removal of officials of the Royal Household and of the Royal Chief Aide-de-Camp shall depend entirely upon the King's pleasure.

52SECTION 18

53Whenever the King is absent from the Kingdom or unable to perform His functions for any reason whatsoever, the King will appoint a person Regent, and the President of the National Assembly shall countersign the Royal Command therefore.

54SECTION 19

55In the case where the King does not appoint a Regent under section 18, or the King is unable to appoint a Regent owing to His not being sui juris or any other reason whatsoever, the Privy Council shall submit the name of a person suitable to hold the office of Regent to the National Assembly for approval. Upon approval by the National Assembly, the President of National Assembly shall make an announcement, in the name of the King, to appoint such person as Regent.

56During the expiration the term of the House of Representatives or the dissolution thereof, the Senate shall act as the National Assembly in giving an approval under paragraph one.

57SECTION 20

58While there is no Regent under section 18 or section 19, the President of the Privy Council shall be Regent pro tempore.

59In the case where the Regent appointed under section 18 or section 19 is unable to perform his or her duties, the President of the Privy Council shall act as Regent pro tempore.

60While being Regent under paragraph one or acting as Regent under paragraph two, the President of the Privy Council shall not perform his or her duties as President of the Privy Council. In such case, the Privy Council shall select a Privy Councilor to act as President of the Privy Council pro tempore.

61SECTION 21

62Before taking office, the Regent appointed under section 18 or section 19 shall make a solemn declaration before the National Assembly in the following words:

63"I, (name of the declarer), do solemnly declare that I will be loyal to His Majesty the King (name of the King) and will faithfully perform my duties in the interests of the country and of the people. I will also uphold and observe the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand in every respect."

64During the expiration of the term of the House of Representatives or the dissolution thereof, the Senate shall act as the National Assembly under this section.

65SECTION 22

66Subject to section 23, the succession to the Throne shall be in accordance with the Palace Law on Succession, B.E. 2467.

67The Amendment of the Palace Law on Succession, B.E. 2467 shall be the prerogative of the King. At the initiative of the King, the Privy Council shall draft the Palace Law Amendment and shall present it to the King for his consideration. When the King has already approved the draft Palace Law Amendment and put His signature thereon, the President of the Privy Council shall notify the President of the National Assembly for informing the National Assembly. The President of the National Assembly shall countersign the Royal Command, and the Palace Law Amendment shall have the force of law upon its publication in the Government Gazette.

68During the expiration of the term of the House of Representatives or the dissolution thereof, the Senate shall act as the National Assembly in acknowledging the matter under paragraph two.

69SECTION 23

70In the case where the Throne becomes vacant and the King has already appointed His Heir to the Throne under the Palace Law on Succession, B.E. 2467, the Council of Ministers shall notify the President of the National Assembly. The President of the National Assembly shall convoke the National Assembly for the acknowledgement thereof, and the President of the National Assembly shall invite such Heir to ascend the Throne and proclaim such Heir King. In the case where the Throne becomes vacant and the King has not appointed His Heir under paragraph one, the Privy Council shall submit the name of the Successor to the Throne under section 22 to the Council of Ministers for further submission to the National Assembly for approval. For this purpose, the name of a Princess may be submitted. Upon the approval of the National Assembly, the President of the National Assembly shall invite such Successor to ascend the Throne and proclaim such Successor King.

71During the expiration of the term of the House of Representatives or the dissolution thereof, the Senate shall act as the National Assembly in acknowledging the matter under paragraph one or in giving an approval under paragraph two.

72SECTION 24

73Pending the proclamation of the name of the Heir or the Successor to the Throne under section 23, the President of the Privy Council shall be Regent pro tempore. In the case where the Throne becomes vacant while the Regent has been appointed under section 18 or section 19 or while the President of the Privy Council is acting as Regent under section 20 paragraph one, such Regent, as the case may be, shall continue to be the Regent until the proclamation of the name of the Heir or the Successor to ascend the Throne as King.

74In the case where the Regent who has been appointed and continues to be the Regent under paragraph one is unable to perform his or her duties, the President of the Privy council shall act as Regent pro tempore.

75In the case where the President of the Privy Council is the Regent under paragraph one or acts as Regent pro tempore under paragraph two, the provisions of section 20 paragraph three shall apply.

76SECTION 25

77In the case where the Privy Council will have to perform its duties under section 19 or section 23 paragraph two, or the President of the Privy Council will have to perform his or her duties under section 20 paragraph one or paragraph two or section 24 paragraph two, and during that time there is no President of the Privy Council or the President of the Privy Council is unable to perform his or her duties, the remaining Privy Councilors shall elect one among themselves to act as President of the Privy Council or to perform the duties under section 20 paragraph one or paragraph two or section 24 paragraph three, as the case may be.

78CHAPTER III. RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES OF THE THAI PEOPLE

79PART 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

80SECTION 26

81In exercising of all State authorities, regard shall be had a human dignity, rights, and liberties as provided in this Constitution.

82SECTION 27

83The rights and liberties, recognized by this Constitution expressly, by implication or by decisions of the Constitutional Court, shall be protected and directly binding on the National Assembly, the Council of Ministers, the Courts, and other State organs in enacting, applying and interpreting laws.

84SECTION 28

85A person shall be able to invoke or exercise his or her human dignity, rights, or liberties in so far as it is not in violation of this Constitution or good morals of the people.

86A person whose rights or liberties recognized by this Constitution are violated can invoke the provisions of this Constitution to bring a lawsuit or to defend themselves in court.

87A person shall be able to directly exercise his or her to bring a lawsuit to cause the State to comply with the provisions of this paragraph. However, where there already exists a law with details of the exercise of such rights and liberties enshrined in this Constitution, the exercise of the rights and liberties shall be in accordance with the provisions of the said law.

88A person shall have the right to receive support, encouragement, and assistance from the State in the exercise of the rights in this paragraph.

89SECTION 29

90It is prohibited to restrict a person’s rights and liberties enshrined in this Constitution except by virtue of law, which must not materially affect the important substance of such rights and liberties.

91The law under paragraph one shall be of general application and shall not be intended to apply to any particular case or person; provided that the provision of the Constitution authorizing its enactment shall also be mentioned therein.

92The provisions in paragraph one and paragraph two shall apply mutatis mutandis to rule of the provisions of the law.

93PART 2. EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW

94SECTION 30

95All persons shall be equal before the law and shall enjoy equal protection under it.

96Males and Females shall enjoy equal rights.

97Unjust discrimination against a person on grounds of difference in origin, race, language, sex, age, physical conditions or health, economic or social status, religious belief, education or constitutionally political view, which does not contravene the provisions of this Constitution, shall not be permitted.

98Measures determined by the State in order to eliminate obstacles to or to promote person’ abilities as other persons shall not be deemed as unjust discrimination under paragraph three.

99SECTION 31

100Military personnel, police, government servants, other State officials, and employees of State agencies shall enjoy the same constitutional rights and liberties as the rest of the population, except for restrictions in ordinances, rules, or regulations issued by virtue of law, particularly in parts relating to politics, efficiency, and discipline or code of conduct.

101PART 3. PERSONAL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES

102SECTION 32

103A person shall enjoy the right and liberty in his or her life and person.

104A Torture or brutal act or punishment by a cruel or inhumane means shall not be permitted; however, corporal punishment as provided by law shall not be regarded as punishment using cruel and inhumane means under this particular paragraph.

105Arrest and custody of person are prohibited, except directed by court order or another virtue of the law.

106Search of Person or act affecting the rights and liberties under paragraph one shall not be made, except virtue of the law.

107In case of act affecting the rights and liberties under paragraph one, injured person, public prosecutor or other persons shall have the right to demand a halt or withdrawal of such action, and, within reasonable limits, choice of procedure or remedy for the damage that may have occurred.

108SECTION 33

109A person shall enjoy the liberty of dwelling.

110A person is protected for his or her peaceful habitation in and for possession of his or her dwelling place.

111The entry into a dwelling without consent of its possessor or the search thereof is prohibited, except by court order or virtue of the law.

112SECTION 34

113A person shall enjoy liberty of travelling and the liberty of making the choice of his or her residence within the Kingdom.

114The restriction of such liberties under paragraph one is prohibited except by virtue of law, specifically for maintaining the security of the State, public peace and order or public welfare, town and country planning, or welfare of the youth.

115Deporting of the Thai nationality or denied person of the Thai nationality entering into the Kingdom cannot be done.

116SECTION 35

117The rights of a family member, honors, and reputation, and private life shall be protected.

118To spread or publicize news or images by any means to the general public, which violates or infringes a person’s rights or those of his or her family, or private life, is prohibited, except in public interest.

119A Person has a right to be protected by misfeasance of his or her private information, as well as by virtue of the law.

120SECTION 36

121A person shall enjoy the liberty to communicate with one another by lawful means.

122It is prohibited to check, detain, or disclose communication between or among persons, including such other acts as to gain advance knowledge of the contents of the communication, except by virtue of law, specifically to protect national security or to maintain peace and order, or good morals of the people.

123SECTION 37

124A person shall enjoy full liberty to profess religion, religious sect or creed, and observe religious precept or exercise a form of worship in accordance with his or her belief; provided that it is not contrary to his or her civic duties, public order or good morals.

125In exercising the liberty referred to in paragraph one, a person is protected from any act of the State, which is derogatory to his or her rights or detrimental to his or benefits on the grounds of professing a religion, a religious sect or creed or observing religious precepts or exercising a form of worship in accordance with his or her different belief from that of other.

126SECTION 38

127Forced labour shall not be imposed except by virtue of the law specifically enacted for the purpose of averting imminent public calamity or by virtue of the law which provides for its imposition during the time when the country is in a state of war or armed conflict, or when a state of emergency or martial law is declared.

128PART 4. RIGHTS TO ACCESS THE JUDICIAL PROCESS

129SECTION 39

130A person shall not be punished except for having committed an act or acts which the law at the time of commission forbade and for which the law prescribed punishment. The punishment shall not exceed what was allowed by the law in force at the time of commission of such act.

131In a criminal case, it shall be presumed that the accused is not guilty.

132Before a final verdict of guilt is handed down, it is prohibited to treat the accused as if he or she is guilty.

133SECTION 40

134A person shall have the rights to the process of justice as follows:

1351.Right of access to the process of justice that is easy, expedient, quick, available to all;

1362.Basic right to the procedure process, which at least guarantees the basic right to an open trial, right to be informed of the facts, and to verify the documents adequately, right to present facts, refute, and produce witness and evidence, right to protest or refuse a judge or judges or examiners, right to be considered by judges or examiners in full quorum, and right to be explained about judgment or order;

1373.A person shall have a right to a fair and correct trial, quickly and be justice;

1384.The injured party, the accused, plaintiff, defendant, partner, interested party, or witness in the case shall enjoy the right to suitable treatment during the process of justice, including the right for quick investigation and the right against self-incrimination;

1395.The injured party, the accused, and the witness shall enjoy the right to receive protection, assistance, remuneration from the State; compensation, and other necessary expenses by the virtue of the law;

1406.Children, youth, females, the handicapped and permanently infirm shall be suitably protected during criminal procedure in case of sexual violent.

1417.In a criminal case, the accused or defendant has the right for correct, quick investigation and justice; has enough opportunity to contend the case, check or to be correct informed of the facts, to have consultation by his or her advocate and temporary release.

1428.In a civil case, a person has the right to receive a proper assistance from the State.

143PART 5. RIGHTS IN PROPERTY

144SECTION 41

145The property right of a person is protected. The extent and the restriction of such right shall be in accordance with the provisions of the law.

146The succession is protected. The right of succession of a person shall be in accordance with the provisions of the law.

147SECTION 42

148The expropriation of immovable property shall not be made except by virtue of the law specifically enacted for the State affairs on public utilities, necessary national defense, exploitation of national resources, town and country planning, promotion and preservation of the quality of the environment, agricultural or industrial development, land reform, preservation of ancient site or historic source, or other public interests, and fair compensation shall be paid in due time to the owner thereof, as well as to all persons having the rights thereto, who suffer loss by such expropriation, as provided by law.

149The amount of compensation under paragraph one shall be fairly assessed with due regard to the normal purchase price, mode of acquisition, nature and situation of the immovable property, loss of the person whose property or right thereto is expropriated, and the benefits the State and the person whose property is expropriated shall receive back from making use of that expropriated immovable property.

150The law on expropriation of immovable property shall specify the purpose of the expropriation and shall clearly determine the period of time to fulfill that purpose. If the immovable property is not used to fulfill such purpose within such period of time, it shall be returned to the original owner or his or her heir.

151The return of immovable property to the original owner or his or her heir under paragraph three and the claim of compensation paid shall be in accordance with the provisions of the law.

152PART 6. RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES OF OCCUPATION

153SECTION 43

154A person shall enjoy the liberties to engage in an enterprise or an occupation and to undertake a fair and free competition.

155The restriction on such liberties under paragraph one shall not be imposed except by virtue of the law specifically enacted for maintaining the security and safety of the State or economy of the country, protecting the public in regard to public utilities, maintaining public order and good morals, regulating the engagement in an occupation, consumer protection, town and country planning, preserving natural resources or the environment, public welfare, or preventing monopoly or eliminating unfair competition.

156SECTION 44

157A person shall have rights to the guarantee of personal safety and security at work, including the guarantee of due living during and post employment, as provided by law.

158PART 7. LIBERTY OF EXPRESSION OF INDIVIDUALS AND MASS MEDIA

159SECTION 45

160A person shall be free the liberties to express his or her opinion, make speeches, write, print, publicize, and make expression by other means.

161The restriction on liberty under paragraph one shall not be prohibited except by virtue of law, specifically enacted for the purpose of maintaining the security of the State, safeguarding the rights, liberties, dignity reputation, family or privacy rights of the person, maintaining public or good morals or preventing the deterioration of the mind or health of the public.

162The closure of a pressing house or other mass media to deprivation of the liberty under this section is prohibited.

163It is prohibited to ban a newspaper or other mass media from presenting news and information or expressing opinion in whole or in part, or to interfere by any means with the liberty of expression to restrict the liberty of the press under this Section except by virtue of law, expressly enacted under paragraph two.

164The censorship of news or articles by a officials of news or articles before their publication in a newspaper, printed matter, or radio and television board casting shall not be made except during the time when the country is in a state of war or armed conflict; provided this act can only be done by virtue of the law enacted under the provisions of paragraph two.

165The owner of any newspaper or other mass media shall be a Thai national.

166No grant of money or other properties shall be made by the State as subsidizes the activities of any private newspaper or other mass media.

167SECTION 46

168Officials or employees in a private newspaper, radio, television board casting, or other mass media shall enjoy their liberties to present news and express their opinions under the constitutional restrictions without the mandate of any State agency, State enterprise or the owner of such business; provided that is not contrary to their professional ethics and have a right to organize institutions to protect their rights, liberties and justice, as well as to have a mechanism to control each other professional ethics.

169Civil servants, staff or employees of State agencies or State enterprises engaging in radio broadcast, telecast, or other mass media shall enjoy the same rights as their counterparts in the private sector under paragraph one.

170Any act, direct or indirect, by holders of political office, State officials, or owners of the enterprise to obstruct or intervene in presentation of news or expression of opinion on public issues by a person under paragraph one and paragraph two, shall be regarded as intentional abuse of powers and duties and shall have no legal effect except to ensure compliance with the professional ethics.

171SECTION 47

172Transmission frequencies for radio and television, and telecommunication are national communication resources for public interest.

173There shall be one independent State agency whose responsibility is to allocate the frequencies under paragraph one and supervise radio and television broadcasting and telecommunication businesses as providing by law.

174In carrying out the act under paragraph two, regard shall be had to utmost public benefit at national and local levels in terms of education, culture, State security, other public interests, promotion of free and fair competition, and public participation in the operations.

175In directing and operating the business under paragraph two, there shall be measures to prevent merger or market dominance among themselves, which might result in obstruction of liberties of information or liberty to receive information from diverse sources.

176SECTION 48

177A holder of political office shall not be the owner or have the stakes in the newspaper, radio, television, and telecommunication businesses, no matter in his own name, or assign any other to act as owner or hold the stakes; or exercising by other means, direct or otherwise, which shall allow the administration of such business as if he owns or holds the stakes of such business.

178PART 8. RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES IN EDUCATION

179SECTION 49

180A person shall enjoy an equal right to receive the education for the duration of not less than twelve years which shall be provided by the State thoroughly, up to the quality, and without charge.

181The deprived, the disabled or the permanently infirm, or those in difficult situations shall receive such rights as prescribed in paragraph one and the State support to ensure the education on equal footing as others.

182Education and training management by the professional organization or private section, alternative education, self-education, and life-long learning shall be protected and promoted by the State.

183SECTION 50

184A person shall enjoy an academic freedom.

185Education, training, learning, teaching, researching and disseminating such research according to academic principles shall be protected; provided that it is not contrary to his or her civic duties or good morals of the people.

186PART 9. RIGHTS TO RECEIVE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE AND STATE WELFARE

187SECTION 51

188A person shall enjoy an equal right to receive appropriate and standard public health service, and the indigent shall have the right to receive free medical treatment from public health centers of the State.

189A person shall have the rights to receive public health services provided by the State universally and efficiently.

190A person shall have the rights to be prevented and eradicated from harmful contagious diseases by the State appropriately, without charge, and in timely manner.

191SECTION 52

192Children and youth shall have the rights of survival and to receive physical, mental, and intellectual development according to their potential in a suitable environment with vital regard to children and youth’s participation

193Children, youth, women, and family members shall have the rights to be protected by the State against violence and unfair treatment, and have the rights to be cured and rehabilitated when such incident happens.

194Intervention and restriction of the rights of children, youth, and family members shall not be permitted, except by virtue of law, specifically to conserve and maintain the status of family or for the greatest benefits of those individuals.

195Children and youth with no guardian shall have the rights to receive appropriate care and education from the State.

196SECTION 53

197A person who is over sixty years of age and has insufficient income shall have the rights to receive welfare, dignified public facilitation, and appropriate aids from the State.

198SECTION 54

199The disabled or handicapped shall have the rights to access and make use of welfare, public facilitation, and appropriate aids from the State.

200A mentally-ill person shall have the rights to receive appropriate aids from the State.

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  • vice president
  • U.S. Supreme Court
  • North Carolina
  • new states
  • delegates
  • Delaware
  • contract clause
  • Dred Scott
  • due process
  • Elbridge Gerry
  • economics
  • Congress
  • confederation
  • Antifederalist
  • anti-slavery
  • Articles of Confederation
  • Bill of Rights
  • confederacy
  • compromise
  • electoral college
  • failures
  • Luther Martin
  • legislature
  • judicial branch
  • Magna Carta
  • morality
  • New Jersey Plan
  • navigation acts
  • journal
  • John Dickinson
  • Federalist
  • federalism
  • General Pinckney
  • George Washington
  • James Madison
  • international trade
  • 3/5 clause
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