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Table of Contents

  1. Preamble
  2. PART I. THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY
  3. PART II. CITIZENSHIP
  4. PART III. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS
  5. PART IV. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY
  6. PART V. THE UNION
  7. CHAPTER I. THE EXECUTIVE
  8. CHAPTER II. PARLIAMENT
  9. CHAPTER III. LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT
  10. CHAPTER IV. THE UNION JUDICIARY
  11. CHAPTER V. COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA
  12. PART VI. THE STATES
  13. CHAPTER I. GENERAL
  14. CHAPTER II. THE EXECUTIVE
  15. CHAPTER III. THE STATE LEGISLATURE
  16. CHAPTER IV. LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR
  17. CHAPTER V. THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES
  18. CHAPTER VI. SUBORDINATE COURTS
  19. PART VII. The States in Part B of the First Schedule
  20. PART VIII. THE UNION TERRITORIES
  21. PART IX. THE PANCHAYATS
  22. PART IXA. THE MUNICIPALITIES
  23. Part IXB. The Co-Operative Societies
  24. PART X. THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS
  25. PART XI. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES
  26. CHAPTER I. LEGISLATIVE RELATIONS
  27. CHAPTER II. ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS
  28. PART XII. FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS
  29. CHAPTER I. FINANCE
  30. CHAPTER II. BORROWING
  31. CHAPTER III. PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS, LIABILITIES, OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS
  32. CHAPTER IV. RIGHT TO PROPERTY
  33. PART XIII. TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF INDIA
  34. PART XIV. SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES
  35. CHAPTER I. SERVICES
  36. CHAPTER II. PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS
  37. PART XIVA. TRIBUNALS
  38. PART XV. ELECTIONS
  39. PART XVI. SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES
  40. PART XVII. OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
  41. CHAPTER I. LANGUAGE OF THE UNION
  42. CHAPTER II. REGIONAL LANGUAGES
  43. CHAPTER III. LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT, HIGH COURTS, ETC
  44. CHAPTER IV. SPECIAL DIRECTIVES
  45. PART XVIII. EMERGENCY PROVISIONS
  46. PART XIX. MISCELLANEOUS
  47. PART XX. AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
  48. PART XXI. TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS
  49. PART XXII. SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE TEXT IN HINDI AND REPEALS
  50. FIRST SCHEDULE. (Articles 1 and 4)
  51. I. THE STATES
  52. II. THE UNION TERRITORIES
  53. SECOND SCHEDULE. (Articles 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3), 164(5), 186 and 221)
  54. PART A. PROVISIONS AS TO THE PRESIDENT AND THE GOVERNORS OF STATES
  55. PART B
  56. PART C. PROVISIONS AS TO THE SPEAKER AND THE DEPUTY SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF THE PEOPLE AND THE CHAIRMAN AND THE DEPUTY CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF STATES AND THE SPEAKER AND THE DEPUTY SPEAKER OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY AND THE CHAIRMAN AND THE DEPUTY CHAIRMAN OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF A STATE
  57. PART D. PROVISIONS AS TO THE JUDGES OF THE SUPREME COURT AND OF THE HIGH COURTS
  58. PART E. PROVISIONS AS TO THE COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA
  59. THIRD SCHEDULE. Forms of Oaths or Affirmations (Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219)
  60. FIFTH SCHEDULE. Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (Article 244 (1))
  61. PART A. GENERAL
  62. PART B. ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL OF SCHEDULED AREAS AND SCHEDULED TRIBES
  63. PART C. SCHEDULED AREAS
  64. PART D. AMENDMENT OF THE SCHEDULE
  65. SIXTH SCHEDULE. Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram (Articles 244 (2) and 275 (1))
  66. SEVENTH SCHEDULE. (Article 246)
  67. LIST I. UNION LIST
  68. LIST II. STATE LIST
  69. LIST III. CONCURRENT LIST
  70. EIGHTH SCHEDULE. Languages (Articles 344(1) and 351)
  71. NINTH SCHEDULE. (Article 31B)
  72. TENTH SCHEDULE. Provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection (Articles 102(2) and 191(2))
  73. ELEVENTH SCHEDULE. (Article 243G)
  74. TWELFTH SCHEDULE. (Article 243W)

Constitution of India (1949, rev. 2012)

1The following text is from the Constitute Project, who through a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, has generously made this content available for use for noncommercial purposes. Follow (right-click) the links and read the annotation to learn more. 1

2


3Preamble

4WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

5JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

6LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

7EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;

8and to promote among them all

9FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;

10IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

11PART I. THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY

121. NAME AND TERRITORY OF THE UNION

131. India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States.

142. The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule.

153. The territory of India shall comprise-

16a.the territories of the States;

17b.the Union territories specified in the First Schedule; and

18c.such other territories as may be acquired.

192. ADMISSION OR ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW STATES

20Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.

212A. SIKKIM TO BE ASSOCIATED WITH THE UNION

22Rep. by the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975, s. 5(w.e.f. 26-4-1975).

233. FORMATION OF NEW STATES AND ALTERATION OF AREAS, BOUNDARIES OR NAMES OF EXISTING STATES

24Parliament may by law-

25a.form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State;

26b.increase the area of any State;

27c.diminish the area of any State;

28d.alter the boundaries of any State;

29e.alter the name of any State:

30Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the President and unless, where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the area, boundaries or name of any of the States, the Bill has been referred by the President to the Legislature of that State for expressing its views thereon within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period as the President may allow and the period so specified or allowed has expired.

31EXPLANATION I

32In this article, in clauses (a) to (e), "State" includes a Union territory, but in the proviso, "State" does not include a Union territory.

33EXPLANATION II

34The power conferred on Parliament by clause (a) includes the power to form a new State or Union territory by uniting a part of any State or Union territory to any other State or Union territory.

354. LAWS MADE UNDER ARTICLES 2 AND 3 TO PROVIDE FOR THE AMENDMENT OF THE FIRST AND THE FOURTH SCHEDULES AND SUPPLEMENTAL, INCIDENTAL AND CONSEQUENTIAL MATTERS

361. Any law referred to in article 2 or article 3 shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the First Schedule and the Fourth Schedule as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also contain such supplemental, incidental and consequential provisions (including provisions as to representation in Parliament and in the Legislature or Legislatures of the State or States affected by such law) as Parliament may deem necessary.

372. No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.

38PART II. CITIZENSHIP

395. CITIZENSHIP AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

40At the commencement of this Constitution, every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and-

41a.who was born in the territory of India; or

42b.either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or

43c.who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such commencement,

44shall be a citizen of India.

456. RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP OF CERTAIN PERSONS WHO HAVE MIGRATED TO INDIA FROM PAKISTAN

46Notwithstanding anything in article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this Constitution if-

47a.he or either of his parents or any of his grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted); and

48b.

49i.in the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration, or

50ii.in the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948, he has been registered as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of the Dominion of India on an application made by him therefor to such officer before the commencement of this Constitution in the form and manner prescribed by that Government:

51Provided that no person shall be so registered unless he has been resident in the territory of India for at least six months immediately preceding the date of his application.

527. RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP OF CERTAIN MIGRANTS TO PAKISTAN

53Notwithstanding anything in articles 5 and 6, a person who has after the first day of March, 1947, migrated from the territory of India to the territory now included in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizen of India:

54Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to a person who, after having so migrated to the territory now included in Pakistan, has returned to the territory of India under a permit for resettlement or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law and every such person shall for the purposes of clause (b) of article 6 be deemed to have migrated to the territory of India after the nineteenth day of July, 1948.

558. RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP OF CERTAIN PERSONS OF INDIAN ORIGIN RESIDING OUTSIDE INDIA

56Notwithstanding anything in article 5, any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted), and who is ordinarily residing in any country outside India as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen of India if he has been registered as a citizen of India by the diplomatic or consular representative of India in the country where he is for the time being residing on an application made by him therefor to such diplomatic or consular representative, whether before or after the commencement of this Constitution, in the form and manner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion of India or the Government of India.

579. PERSONS VOLUNTARILY ACQUIRING CITIZENSHIP OF A FOREIGN STATE NOT TO BE CITIZENS

58No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of article 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of article 6 or article 8, if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State.

5910. CONTINUANCE OF THE RIGHTS OF CITIZENSHIP

60Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen.

6111. PARLIAMENT TO REGULATE THE RIGHT OF CITIZENSHIP BY LAW

62Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship.

63PART III. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

64GENERAL

6512. DEFINITION

66In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, "the State" includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India.

6713. LAWS INCONSISTENT WITH OR IN DEROGATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

681. All laws in force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.

692. The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void.

703. In this article, unless the context otherwise requires,-

71a."law" includes any Ordinance, order, bye-law, rule, regulation, notification, custom or usage having in the territory of India the force of law;

72b."laws in force" includes laws passed or made by a Legislature or other competent authority in the territory of India before the commencement of this Constitution and not previously repealed, notwithstanding that any such law or any part thereof may not be then in operation either at all or in particular areas.

734. Nothing in this article shall apply to any amendment of this Constitution made under article 368.

74RIGHT TO EQUALITY

7514. EQUALITY BEFORE LAW

76The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.

7715. PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION ON GROUNDS OF RELIGION, RACE, CASTE, SEX OR PLACE OF BIRTH

781. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.

792. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to-

80a.access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment; or

81b.the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of general public.

823. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.

834. Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

845. Nothing in this article or in sub-clause (g) of clause (1) of article 19 shall prevent the State from making any special provision, by law, for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in so far as such special provisions relate to their admission to educational institutions including private educational institutions, whether aided or unaided by the State, other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of article 30.

8516. EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY IN MATTERS OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT

861. There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.

872. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect of, any employment or office under the State.

883. Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing, in regard to a class or classes of employment or appointment to an office under the Government of, or any local or other authority within, a State or Union territory, any requirement as to residence within that State or Union territory prior to such employment or appointment.

894. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State.

904A. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for reservation in matters of promotion, with consequential seniority, to any class or classes of posts in the services under the State in favour of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes which in the opinion of the States, are not adequately represented in the services under the State.

914B. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from considering any unfilled vacancies of a year which are reserved for being filled up in that year in accordance with any provision for reservation made under clause (4) or clause (4A) as a separate class of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or years and such class of vacancies shall not be considered together with the vacancies of the year in which they are being filled up for determining the ceiling of fifty per cent, reservation on total number of vacancies of that year.

925. Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any law which provides that the incumbent of an office in connection with the affairs of any religious or denominational institution or any member of the governing body thereof shall be a person professing a particular religion or belonging to a particular denomination.

9317. ABOLITION OF UNTOUCHABILITY

94"Untouchability" is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of "Untouchability" shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.

9518. ABOLITION OF TITLES

961. No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State.

972. No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State.

983. No person who is not a citizen of India shall, while he holds any office of profit or trust under the State, accept without the consent of the President any title from any foreign State.

994. No person holding any office of profit or trust under the State shall, without the consent of the President, accept any present, emolument, or office of any kind from or under any foreign State.

100RIGHT TO FREEDOM

10119. PROTECTION OF CERTAIN RIGHTS REGARDING FREEDOM OF SPEECH, ETC

1021. All citizens shall have the right-

103a.to freedom of speech and expression;

104b.to assemble peaceably and without arms;

105c.to form associations or unions or co-operative societies;

106d.to move freely throughout the territory of India;

107e.to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India;

108f.[omitted by s. 2, ibid., (w.e.f. 20-6-1979).]

109g.to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.

1102. Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with Foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.

1113. Nothing in sub-clause (b) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interest of the sovereignty and integrity of India or public order, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause.

1124. Nothing in sub-clause (c) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India or public order or morality, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause.

1135. Nothing in sub-clause (d) and (e) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of any of the rights conferred by the said sub-clauses either in the interests of the general public or for the protection of the interests of any Scheduled Tribe.

1146. Nothing in sub-clause (g) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the general public, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause; and, in particular, nothing in the said sub-clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it relates to, or prevent the State from making any law relating to,-

115i.the professional or technical qualifications necessary for practising any profession or carrying on any occupation, trade or business, or

116ii.the carrying on by the State, or by a corporation owned or controlled by the State, of any trade, business, industry or service, whether to the exclusion, complete or partial, of citizens or otherwise.

11720. PROTECTION IN RESPECT OF CONVICTION FOR OFFENCES

1181. No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the act charged as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law in force at the time of the commission of the offence.

1192. No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once.

1203. No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.

12121. PROTECTION OF LIFE AND PERSONAL LIBERTY

122No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.

12321A. RIGHT TO EDUCATION

124The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.

12522. PROTECTION AGAINST ARREST AND DETENTION IN CERTAIN CASES

1261. No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest nor shall he be denied the right to consult, and to be defended by, a legal practitioner of his choice.

1272. Every person who is arrested and detained in custody shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of twenty-four hours of such arrest excluding the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to court of the magistrate and no such person shall be detained in custody beyond the said period without the authority of a magistrate.

1283. Nothing in clauses (1) and (2) shall apply-

129a.to any person who for the time being is an enemy alien; or

130b.to any person who is arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention.

1314. No law providing for preventive detention shall authorise the detention of a person for a longer period than three months unless-

132a.an Advisory Board consisting of persons who are, or have been, or are qualified to be appointed as, Judges of a High Court has reported before the expiration of the said period of three months that there is in its opinion sufficient cause for such detention:

133Provided that nothing in this sub-clause shall authorise the detention of any person beyond the maximum period prescribed by any law made by Parliament under sub-clause (b) of clause (7); or

134b.such person is detained in accordance with the provisions of any law made by Parliament under sub-clauses (a) and (b) of clause (7).

1355. When any person is detained in pursuance of an order made under any law providing for preventive detention, the authority making the order shall, as soon as may be, communicate to such person the grounds on which the order has been made and shall afford him the earliest opportunity of making a representation against the order.

1366. Nothing in clause (5) shall require the authority making any such order as is referred to in that clause to disclose facts which such authority considers to be against the public interest to disclose.

1377. Parliament may by law prescribe-

138a.the circumstances under which, and the class or classes of cases in which, a person may be detained for a period longer than three months under any law providing for preventive detention without obtaining the opinion of an Advisory Board in accordance with the provisions of sub-clause (a) of clause (4);

139b.the maximum period for which any person may in any class or classes of cases be detained under any law providing for preventive detention; and

140c.the procedure to be followed by an Advisory Board in an inquiry under sub-clause (a) of clause (4).

141RIGHT AGAINST EXPLOITATION

14223. PROHIBITION OF TRAFFIC IN HUMAN BEINGS AND FORCED LABOUR

1431. Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.

1442. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purposes, and in imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them.

14524. PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN IN FACTORIES, ETC

146No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.

147RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION

14825. FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE AND FREE PROFESSION, PRACTICE AND PROPAGATION OF RELIGION

1491. Subject to public order, morality and health and to the other provisions of this Part, all persons are equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion.

1502. Nothing in this article shall affect the operation of any existing law or prevent the State from making any law

151a.regulating or restricting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice;

152b.providing for social welfare and reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus.

153EXPLANATION I

154The wearing and carrying of kirpans shall be deemed to be included in the profession of the Sikh religion.

155EXPLANATION II

156In sub-clause (b) of clause (2), the reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion, and the reference to Hindu religious institutions shall be construed accordingly.

15726. FREEDOM TO MANAGE RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS

158Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right-

159a.to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes;

160b.to manage its own affairs in matters of religion;

161c.to own and acquire movable and immovable property; and

162d.to administer such property in accordance with law.

16327. FREEDOM AS TO PAYMENT OF TAXES FOR PROMOTION OF ANY PARTICULAR RELIGION

164No person shall be compelled to pay any taxes, the proceeds of which are specifically appropriated in payment of expenses for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious denomination.

16528. FREEDOM AS TO ATTENDANCE AT RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION OR RELIGIOUS WORSHIP IN CERTAIN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

1661. No religious instruction shall be provided in any educational institution wholly maintained out of State funds.

1672. Nothing in clause (1) shall apply to an educational institution which is administered by the State but has been established under any endowment or trust which requires that religious instruction shall be imparted in such institution.

1683. No person attending any educational institution recognised by the State or receiving aid out of State funds shall be required to take part in any religious instruction that may be imparted in such institution or to attend any religious worship that may be conducted in such institution or in any premises attached thereto unless such person or, if such person is a minor, his guardian has given his consent thereto.

169CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS

17029. PROTECTION OF INTERESTS OF MINORITIES

1711. Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.

1722. No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them.

17330. RIGHT OF MINORITIES TO ESTABLISH AND ADMINISTER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

1741. All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.

1751A. In making any law providing for the compulsory acquisition of any property of an educational institution established and administered by a minority, referred to in clause (1), the State shall ensure that the amount fixed by or determined under such law for the acquisition of such property is such as would not restrict or abrogate the right guaranteed under that clause.

1762. The State shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate against any educational institution on the ground that it is under the management of a minority, whether based on religion or language.

17731. COMPULSORY ACQUISITION OF PROPERTY

178Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 6(w.e.f. 20-6-1979).

179SAVING OF CERTAIN LAWS

18031A. SAVING OF LAWS PROVIDING FOR ACQUISITION OF ESTATES, ETC

1811. Notwithstanding anything contained in article 13, no law providing for-

182a.the acquisition by the State of any estate or of any rights therein or the extinguishment or modification of any such rights, or

183b.the taking over of the management of any property by the State for a limited period either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of the property, or

184c.the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of any of the corporations, or

185d.the extinguishment or modification of any rights of managing agents, secretaries and treasurers, managing directors, directors or managers of corporations, or of any voting rights of share-holders thereof, or

186e.the extinguishment or modification of any rights accruing by virtue of any agreement, lease or licence for the purpose of searching for, or winning, any mineral or mineral oil, or the premature termination or cancellation of any such agreement, lease or licence,

187shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by article 14 or article 19:

188Provided that where such law is a law made by the Legislature of a State, the provisions of this article shall not apply thereto unless such law, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, has received his assent:

189Provided further that where any law makes any provision for the acquisition by the State of any estate and where any land comprised therein is held by a person under his personal cultivation, it shall not be lawful for the State to acquire any portion of such land as is within the ceiling limit applicable to him under any law for the time being in force or any building or structure standing thereon or appurtenant thereto, unless the law relating to the acquisition of such land, building or structure, provides for payment of compensation at a rate which shall not be less than the market value thereof.

1902. In this article,-

191a.the expression "estate" shall, in relation to any local area, have the same meaning as that expression or its local equivalent has in the existing law relating to land tenures in force in that area and shall also include-

192i.any jagir, inam or muafi or other similar grant and in the States of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, any janmam right;

193ii.any land held under ryotwari settlement;

194iii.any land held or let for purposes of agriculture or for purposes ancillary thereto, including waste land, forest land, land for pasture or sites of buildings and other structures occupied by cultivators of land, agricultural labourers and village artisans;

195b.the expression "rights", in relation to an estate, shall include any rights vesting in a proprietor, sub-proprietor, under-proprietor, tenure-holder, raiyat, under-raiyat or other intermediary and any rights or privileges in respect of land revenue.

19631B. VALIDATION OF CERTAIN ACTS AND REGULATIONS

197Without prejudice to the generality of the provisions contained in article 31A, none of the Acts and Regulations specified in the Ninth Schedule nor any of the provision thereof shall be deemed to be void, or ever to have become void, on the ground that such Act, Regulation or provision is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by, any provisions of this part, and notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court or tribunal to the contrary, each of the said Acts and Regulations shall, subject to the power of any competent Legislature to repeal or amend it, continue in force.

19831C. SAVING OF LAWS GIVING EFFECT TO CERTAIN DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES

199Notwithstanding anything contained in article 13, no law giving effect to the policy of the State towards securing all or any of the principles laid down in Part IV shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with, or takes away or abridges any of the rights conferred by article 14 or article 19; and no law containing a declaration that it is for giving effect to such policy shall be called in question in any court on the ground that it does not give effect to such policy:

200Provided that where such law is made by the Legislature of a State, the provisions of this article shall not apply thereto unless such law, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, has received his assent.

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