Mobile users can only read ConText documents. Annotate this document on your computer or tablet.
Results

Table of Contents

  1. PART ONE. SOUTH SUDAN AND THE CONSTITUTION
  2. PART TWO. BILL OF RIGHTS
  3. PART THREE. FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVES AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES
  4. CHAPTER I. OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPLES
  5. CHAPTER II. CITIZENSHIP AND NATIONALITY
  6. CHAPTER III. THE DECENTRALIZED SYSTEM OF GOVERNANCE
  7. PART FOUR. THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
  8. PART FIVE. THE NATIONAL LEGISLATURE
  9. CHAPTER I. ESTABLISHMENT, COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONS
  10. CHAPTER II. INTERIM PROVISIONS
  11. PART SIX. THE NATIONAL EXECUTIVE
  12. CHAPTER I. ESTABLISHMENT, COMPOSITION AND POWERS
  13. CHAPTER II. THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC
  14. CHAPTER III. THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
  15. PART SEVEN. THE JUDICIARY
  16. PART EIGHT. PUBLIC ATTORNEYS AND ADVOCACY
  17. PART NINE. THE CIVIL SERVICE, INDEPENDENT INSTITUTIONS AND COMMISSIONS
  18. CHAPTER I. THE CIVIL SERVICE
  19. CHAPTER II. INDEPENDENT INSTITUTIONS AND COMMISSIONS
  20. CHAPTER III. ANTI-CORRUPTION COMMISSION
  21. CHAPTER IV. HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION
  22. CHAPTER V. PUBLIC GRIEVANCES CHAMBER
  23. CHAPTER VI. RELIEF AND REHABILITATION COMMISSION
  24. CHAPTER VII. DEMOBILIZATION, DISARMAMENT AND RE-INTEGRATION COMMISSION
  25. CHAPTER VIII. HIV/AIDS COMMISSION
  26. PART TEN. ARMED FORCES, LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES AND SECURITY
  27. CHAPTER I. ARMED FORCES
  28. CHAPTER II. LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES
  29. CHAPTER III. NATIONAL SECURITY
  30. PART ELEVEN. THE STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND TRADITIONAL AUTHORITY
  31. CHAPTER I. STATES OF SOUTH SUDAN
  32. CHAPTER II. LOCAL GOVERNMENT
  33. PART TWELVE. FINANCE AND ECONOMIC MATTERS
  34. CHAPTER I. GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND EQUITABLE SHARING OF NATIONAL WEALTH
  35. CHAPTER II. LAND OWNERSHIP, TENURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES
  36. CHAPTER III. PETROLEUM AND GAS DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
  37. CHAPTER IV. SOURCES OF REVENUE
  38. CHAPTER V. FISCAL AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
  39. CHAPTER VI. BANKING IN SOUTH SUDAN
  40. CHAPTER VII. ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
  41. CHAPTER VIII. INTERSTATE TRADE, COMMERCE AND LIABILITIES AND ASSETS
  42. PART THIRTEEN. STATE OF EMERGENCY AND DECLARATION OF WAR
  43. PART FOURTEEN. CENSUS, REFERENDA AND ELECTIONS
  44. CHAPTER I. CENSUS AND STATISTICS
  45. CHAPTER II. REFERENDA
  46. CHAPTER III. ELECTIONS
  47. PART FIFTEEN. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
  48. PART SIXTEEN. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS AND THE PERMANENT CONSTITUTION PROCESS
  49. CHAPTER I. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
  50. CHAPTER II. PERMANENT CONSTITUTION PROCESS
  51. Schedule (A. National Powers
  52. Schedule (B. Powers of States
  53. Schedule (C. Concurrent Powers
  54. Schedule (D. Residual Powers
  55. Schedule (E. Resolution of Conflicts in Respect of Concurrent Powers

Constitution of South Sudan (2011)

1The following text is from the Constitute Project, who through a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, has generously made this content available for use for noncommercial purposes. Follow (right-click) the links and read the annotation to learn more. 1

2


3Preamble

4We, the People of South Sudan,

5Grateful to the Almighty God for giving the people of South Sudan the wisdom and courage to determine their destiny and future through a free, transparent and peaceful referendum in accordance with the provisions of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, 2005;

6Recalling our long and heroic struggle for justice, freedom, equality and dignity in South Sudan;

7Remembering and inspired by the selfless sacrifices of our martyrs, heroes and heroines;

8Dedicated to a genuine national healing process and the building of trust and confidence in our society through dialogue;

9Determined to lay the foundation for a united, peaceful and prosperous society based on justice, equality, respect for human rights and the rule of law;

10Committed to establishing a decentralized democratic multi-party system of governance in which power shall be peacefully transferred and to upholding values of human dignity and equal rights and duties of men and women;

11Conscious of the need to manage our natural resources sustainably and efficiently for the benefit of the present and future generations and to eradicate poverty and attain the Millennium Development Goals;

12Do hereby, through this Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly, amend the Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan, 2005, which shall be adopted and hereafter referred to as the “Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011,” and shall be the supreme law by which the independent and sovereign South Sudan shall be governed during the Transitional Period, and undertake to abide by, respect and defend it.

13PART ONE. SOUTH SUDAN AND THE CONSTITUTION

141. THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN AND ITS TERRITORY

151. South Sudan is a sovereign and independent Republic, and it shall be known as “The Republic of South Sudan.”

162. The territory of the Republic of South Sudan comprises:

17a.all lands and air space that constituted the three former Southern Provinces of Bahr el Ghazal, Equatoria and Upper Nile in their boundaries as they stood on January 1, 1956; and

18b.the Abyei Area, the territory of the nine Ngok Dinka chiefdoms transferred from Bahr el Ghazal Province to Kordofan Province in 1905 as defined by the Abyei Arbitration Tribunal Award of July 2009 in the event that the resolution of the final status of the Abyei Area results in the Area becoming part of the Republic of South Sudan.

193. The Republic of South Sudan is bordered by Sudan in the north, Ethiopia in the east, Kenya and Uganda in the south, the Democratic Republic of Congo in the southwest and the Central African Republic in the west.

204. South Sudan is governed on the basis of a decentralized democratic system and is an all embracing homeland for its people. It is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-racial entity where such diversities peacefully co-exist.

215. South Sudan is founded on justice, equality, respect for human dignity and advancement of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

222. SOVEREIGNTY

23Sovereignty is vested in the people and shall be exercised by the State through its democratic and representative institutions established by this Constitution and the law.

243. SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION

251. This Constitution derives its authority from the will of the people and shall be the supreme law of the land. It shall have a binding force on all persons, institutions, organs and agencies of government throughout the Country.

262. The authority of government at all levels shall derive from this Constitution and the law.

273. The states’ constitutions and all laws shall conform to this Constitution.

284. DEFENCE OF THE CONSTITUTION

291. No person or group of persons shall take or retain control of State power except in accordance with this Constitution.

302. Any person or group of persons who attempt(s) to overthrow the constitutional government, or suspend or abrogate this Constitution commits treason.

313. Every citizen shall have the duty to resist any person or group of persons seeking to overthrow the constitutional government, or suspend or abrogate this Constitution.

324. All levels of government shall promote public awareness of this Constitution by translating it into national languages and disseminating it as widely as possible. They shall provide for the teaching of this Constitution in all public and private educational and training institutions as well as in the armed and other regular forces, by regularly transmitting and publishing programmes in respect thereof through the media and press.

335. SOURCES OF LEGISLATION

34The sources of legislation in South Sudan shall be:

35a.this Constitution;

36b.written law;

37c.customs and traditions of the people;

38d.the will of the people; and

39e.any other relevant source.

406. LANGUAGE

411. All indigenous languages of South Sudan are national languages and shall be respected, developed and promoted.

422. English shall be the official working language in the Republic of South Sudan, as well as the language of instruction at all levels of education.

433. The State shall promote the development of a sign language for the benefit of people with special needs.

447. NATIONAL SYMBOLS

45The flag, emblem, national anthem, coat of arms, public seal, medals, festivals and commemorations of the State shall be prescribed by law.

468. RELIGION

471. Religion and State shall be separate.

482. All religions shall be treated equally and religion or religious beliefs shall not be used for divisive purposes.

49PART TWO. BILL OF RIGHTS

509. NATURE OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS

511. The Bill of Rights is a covenant among the people of South Sudan and between them and their government at every level and a commitment to respect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms enshrined in this Constitution; it is the cornerstone of social justice, equality and democracy.

522. The rights and freedoms of individuals and groups enshrined in this Bill shall be respected, upheld and promoted by all organs and agencies of Government and by all persons.

533. All rights and freedoms enshrined in international human rights treaties, covenants and instruments ratified or acceded to by the Republic of South Sudan shall be an integral part of this Bill.

544. This Bill of Rights shall be upheld by the Supreme Court and other competent courts and monitored by the Human Rights Commission.

5510. SANCTITY OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

56Subject to Article 190 herein, no derogation from the rights and freedoms enshrined in this Bill shall be made. The Bill of Rights shall be upheld, protected and applied by the Supreme Court and other competent courts; the Human Rights Commission shall monitor its application in accordance with this Constitution and the law.

5711. LIFE AND HUMAN DIGNITY

58Every person has the inherent right to life, dignity and the integrity of his or her person which shall be protected by law; no one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his or her life.

5912. PERSONAL LIBERTY

60Every person has the right to liberty and security of person; no person shall be subjected to arrest, detention, deprivation or restriction of his or her liberty except for specified reasons and in accordance with procedures prescribed by law.

6113. FREEDOM FROM SLAVERY, SERVITUDE AND FORCED LABOUR

621. Slavery and slave trade in all forms are prohibited. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.

632. No person shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour except as a penalty upon conviction by a competent court of law.

6414. EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW

65All persons are equal before the law and are entitled to the equal protection of the law without discrimination as to race, ethnic origin, colour, sex, language, religious creed, political opinion, birth, locality or social status.

6615. RIGHT TO FOUND A FAMILY

67Every person of marriageable age shall have the right to marry a person of the opposite sex and to found a family according to their respective family laws, and no marriage shall be entered into without the free and full consent of the man and woman intending to marry.

6816. RIGHTS OF WOMEN

691. Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men.

702. Women shall have the right to equal pay for equal work and other related benefits with men.

713. Women shall have the right to participate equally with men in public life.

724. All levels of government shall:

73a.promote women participation in public life and their representation in the legislative and executive organs by at least twenty-five per cent as an affirmative action to redress imbalances created by history, customs, and traditions;

74b.enact laws to combat harmful customs and traditions which undermine the dignity and status of women; and

75c.provide maternity and child care and medical care for pregnant and lactating women.

765. Women shall have the right to own property and share in the estates of their deceased husbands together with any surviving legal heir of the deceased.

7717. RIGHTS OF THE CHILD

781. Every child has the right:

79a.to life, survival and development;

80b.to a name and nationality;

81c.to know and be cared for by his or her parents or legal guardian;

82d.not to be subjected to exploitative practices or abuse, nor to be required to serve in the army nor permitted to perform work which may be hazardous or harmful to his or her education, health or well-being;

83e.to be free from any form of discrimination;

84f.to be free from corporal punishment and cruel and inhuman treatment by any person including parents, school administrations and other institutions;

85g.not to be subjected to negative and harmful cultural practices which affect his or her health, welfare or dignity; and

86h.to be protected from abduction and trafficking.

872. In all actions concerning children undertaken by public and private welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the paramount consideration shall be the best interest of the child.

883. All levels of government shall accord special protection to orphans and other vulnerable children; child adoption shall be regulated by law.

894. For the purposes of this Constitution, a child is any person under the age of eighteen years.

9018. FREEDOM FROM TORTURE

91No person shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

9219. FAIR TRIAL

931. An accused person is presumed to be innocent until his or her guilt is proved according to the law.

942. Any person who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the reasons for his or her arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against him or her.

953. In all civil and criminal proceedings, every person shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent court of law in accordance with procedures prescribed by law.

964. A person arrested by the police as part of an investigation, may be held in detention, for a period not exceeding 24 hours and if not released on bond to be produced in court. The court has authority to either remand the accused in prison or to release him or her on bail.

975. No person shall be charged with any act or omission which did not constitute an offence at the time of its commission.

986. Every accused person shall be entitled to be tried in his or her presence in any criminal trial without undue delay; the law shall regulate trial in absentia.

997. Any accused person has the right to defend himself or herself in person or through a lawyer of his or her own choice or to have legal aid assigned to him or her by the government where he or she cannot afford a lawyer to defend him or her in any serious offence.

10020. RIGHT TO LITIGATION

101The right to litigation shall be guaranteed for all persons; no person shall be denied the right to resort to courts of law to redress grievances whether against government or any individual or organization.

10221. RESTRICTION ON DEATH PENALTY

1031. No death penalty shall be imposed, save as punishment for extremely serious offences in accordance with the law.

1042. No death penalty shall be imposed on a person under the age of eighteen or a person who has attained the age of seventy.

1053. No death penalty shall be executed upon a pregnant or lactating woman, save after two years of lactation.

10622. PRIVACY

107The privacy of all persons shall be inviolable; no person shall be subjected to interference with his or her private life, family, home or correspondence, save in accordance with the law.

10823. RELIGIOUS RIGHTS

109The following religious rights are guaranteed by this Constitution:

110a.the right to worship or assemble in connection with any religion or belief and to establish and maintain places for these purposes;

111b.the right to establish and maintain appropriate faith-based, charitable or humanitarian institutions;

112c.the right to acquire, possess and own movable and/or immovable property and make, acquire and use the necessary articles and materials related to the rites or customs of religion or belief;

113d.the right to write, issue and disseminate religious publications;

114e.the right to teach religion or beliefs in places suitable for these purposes;

115f.the right to solicit and receive voluntary financial and other contributions from individuals, private and public institutions;

116g.the right to train, appoint, elect or designate by succession appropriate religious leaders called for by the requirements and standards of any religion or belief;

117h.the right to observe days of rest, celebrate holidays and ceremonies in accordance with the precepts of religious beliefs; and

118i.the right to communicate with individuals and communities in matters of religion and beliefs at national and international levels.

11924. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND MEDIA

1201. Every citizen shall have the right to the freedom of expression, reception and dissemination of information, publication, and access to the press without prejudice to public order, safety or morals as prescribed by law.

1212. All levels of government shall guarantee the freedom of the press and other media as shall be regulated by law in a democratic society.

1223. All media shall abide by professional ethics.

12325. FREEDOM OF ASSEMBLY AND ASSOCIATION

1241. The right to peaceful assembly is recognized and guaranteed; every person shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form or join political parties, associations and trade or professional unions for the protection of his or her interests.

1252. Formation and registration of political parties, associations and trade unions shall be regulated by law as is necessary in a democratic society.

1263. No association shall function as a political party at the National or state level unless it has:

127a.its membership open to any South Sudanese irrespective of religion, gender, ethnic origin or place of birth;

128b.a programme that does not contradict the provisions of this Constitution;

129c.a democratically elected leadership and institutions; and

130d.disclosed and transparent sources of funding.

13126. RIGHT TO PARTICIPATION AND VOTING

1321. Every citizen shall have the right to take part in any level of government directly or through freely chosen representative, and shall have the right to nominate himself or herself or be nominated for a public post or office in accordance with this Constitution and the law.

1332. Every citizen shall have the right to vote or be elected in accordance with this Constitution and the law.

13427. FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT AND RESIDENCE

1351. Every citizen shall have the right to freedom of movement and the liberty to choose his or her residence except for reasons of public health and safety as shall be regulated by law.

1362. Every citizen shall have the right to leave and or return to South Sudan.

13728. RIGHT TO OWN PROPERTY

1381. Every person shall have the right to acquire or own property as regulated by law.

1392. No private property may be expropriated save by law in the public interest and in consideration for prompt and fair compensation. No private property shall be confiscated save by an order of a court of law.

14029. RIGHT TO EDUCATION

1411. Education is a right for every citizen and all levels of government shall provide access to education without discrimination as to religion, race, ethnicity, health status including HIV/AIDS, gender or disability.

1422. All levels of government shall promote education at all levels and shall ensure free and compulsory education at the primary level; they shall also provide free illiteracy eradication programmes.

14330. RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS AND THE ELDERLY

1441. All levels of government shall guarantee to persons with disabilities or special needs participation in society and the enjoyment of rights and freedoms set out in this Constitution, especially access to public utilities, suitable education and employment.

1452. The elderly and persons with disabilities or special needs shall have the right to the respect of their dignity. They shall be provided with the necessary care and medical services as shall be regulated by law.

14631. PUBLIC HEALTH CARE

147All levels of government shall promote public health, establish, rehabilitate and develop basic medical and diagnostic institutions and provide free primary health care and emergency services for all citizens.

14832. RIGHT OF ACCESS TO INFORMATION

149Every citizen has the right of access to official information and records, including electronic records in the possession of any level of government or any organ or agency thereof, except where the release of such information is likely to prejudice public security or the right to privacy of any other person.

15033. RIGHTS OF ETHNIC AND CULTURAL COMMUNITIES

151Ethnic and cultural communities shall have the right to freely enjoy and develop their particular cultures. Members of such communities shall have the right to practice their beliefs, use their languages, observe their religions and raise their children within the context of their respective cultures and customs in accordance with this Constitution and the law.

15234. RIGHT TO HOUSING

1531. Every citizen has the right to have access to decent housing.

1542. The State shall formulate policies and take reasonable legislative measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realization of these rights.

1553. No one shall be evicted from his or her lawfully acquired home or have his or her home demolished save in accordance with the law.

156PART THREE. FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVES AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES

157CHAPTER I. OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPLES

15835. GUIDING OBJECTIVES AND PRINCIPLES

1591. All levels of government and their organs, institutions and citizens shall be guided by the objectives and principles contained in this Constitution.

1602. This Constitution shall be interpreted and applied to advance the individual dignity and address the particular needs of the people by dedicating public resources and focusing attention on the provision of gainful employment for the people, and improving their lives by building roads, schools, airports, community institutions, hospitals, providing clean water, food security, electric power and telecommunication services to every part of the country.

16136. POLITICAL OBJECTIVES

1621. All levels of government shall promote democratic principles and political pluralism, and shall be guided by the principles of decentralization and devolution of power to the people through the appropriate levels of government where they can best manage and direct their affairs.

1632. All levels of government shall:

164a.promote and consolidate peace and create a secure and stable political environment for socio-economic development;

165b.initiate a comprehensive process of national reconciliation and healing that shall promote national harmony, unity and peaceful co-existence among the people of South Sudan;

166c.inculcate in the people a culture of peace, unity, cooperation, understanding, tolerance and respect for customs, traditions and beliefs of each other; and

167d.mobilize popular energies and resources for reconstruction and development.

1683. The security and welfare of the people of South Sudan shall be the primary duty of all levels of government.

1694. The composition of governments shall take into account ethnic, regional and social diversity in order to promote national unity and command national loyalty.

1705. All public offices shall be held in trust for the people and all persons in positions of leadership and responsibility shall be answerable to the people in their work and duties.

17137. ECONOMIC OBJECTIVES

1721. The principal objective of the economic development strategy shall be the:

173a.eradication of poverty;

174b.attainment of the Millennium Development Goals;

175c.guaranteeing the equitable distribution of wealth;

176d.redressing imbalances of income; and

177e.achieving a decent standard of life for the people of South Sudan.

1782. All levels of government shall:

179a.develop and regulate the economy in order to achieve prosperity through policies aimed at increasing production, creating an efficient and self-reliant economy and encouraging free market and prohibition of monopoly;

180b.protect and ensure the sustainable management and utilization of natural resources including land, water, petroleum, minerals, fauna and flora for the benefit of the people;

181c.facilitate the development of the private sector, particularly indigenous entrepreneurs to establish and develop a viable private sector capable of participating effectively in reconstruction and development;

182d.promote private initiative and self-reliance and take all necessary steps to involve the people in the formulation and implementation of development plans and programmes that affect them and to enhance as well their right to equal opportunities in development;

183e.promote agricultural, industrial and technological development by adopting appropriate policies and legislation for the encouragement and attraction of local and foreign investment; and

184f.take necessary measures to bring about balanced, integrated and equitable development of different areas and to encourage and expedite rural development as a strategy for averting urban-biased development and policies that have been responsible for the neglect of rural communities.

1853. The State shall ensure that National wealth is equitably shared among all levels of government for the welfare of the people.

18638. EDUCATION, SCIENCE, ART AND CULTURE

1871. All levels of government shall:

188a.promote education at their respective levels to create the necessary qualified cadres for development;

189b.mobilize public, private and communal resources and capabilities for education and promotion of scientific research geared towards development;

190c.encourage and promote arts and craft and foster their patronization by government institutions and citizens;

191d.recognize cultural diversity and encourage such diverse cultures to harmoniously flourish and find expression through education and the media;

192e.protect cultural heritage, monuments and places of national, historic or religious importance from destruction, desecration, unlawful removal or illegal export; and

193f.protect, preserve and promote the cultures of the people which enhance their human dignity and are consistent with the fundamental objectives and principles set out in this Chapter.

1942. The National Government shall:

195a.guarantee academic freedom in institutions of higher education and protect the freedom of scientific research within the ethical parameters of research and as shall be regulated by law; and

196b.endeavour to avail the necessary financial resources to make education affordable at secondary and higher levels, including technical and vocational training, in order to bridge the educational gap caused by the collapse of educational services during the years of conflict.

1973. Every person or group of persons shall have the right to establish and maintain private schools and other educational institutions at all levels in accordance with the conditions and standards prescribed by law.

19839. FAMILY

1991. Family is the natural and fundamental unit of society and shall be protected by law.

2002. All levels of government shall promote the welfare of the family and enact the necessary laws for its protection.

Jump to Passage Number
Keyboard Shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts

J Go to Next passage
K Go to Previous passage
P Jump to a passage
? Display keyboard shortcuts
Q Display Table of Contents
ESC Close Annotation / Discussion Sidebar

Add an annotation

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
  • Image must be under 2MB and have extension .jpg, .jpeg, .png, or .gif. Remove image
  • Theoretical/Philosophical
  • Historical Commentary
  • Constitutional Interpretation
  • Current Events
  • International Perspectives
  • Other
  • separation of powers
  • rules
  • Rufus King
  • slave
  • slave labor
  • slavery
  • slave trade
  • Revolution
  • republicanism
  • presidency
  • Oliver Ellsworth
  • record
  • records
  • republican
  • representation
  • slaves
  • states
  • William Jackson
  • Western Territory
  • Virginia Plan
  • taxes
  • taxation
  • three-fifths clause
  • twenty-year compromise
  • vice president
  • U.S. Supreme Court
  • North Carolina
  • new states
  • delegates
  • Delaware
  • contract clause
  • Dred Scott
  • due process
  • Elbridge Gerry
  • economics
  • Congress
  • confederation
  • Antifederalist
  • anti-slavery
  • Articles of Confederation
  • Bill of Rights
  • confederacy
  • compromise
  • electoral college
  • failures
  • Luther Martin
  • legislature
  • judicial branch
  • Magna Carta
  • morality
  • New Jersey Plan
  • navigation acts
  • journal
  • John Dickinson
  • Federalist
  • federalism
  • General Pinckney
  • George Washington
  • James Madison
  • international trade
  • 3/5 clause
Add a Reference