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Table of Contents

  1. Preamble
  2. CHAPTER I. THE PEOPLE, THE STATE AND SOVEREIGNTY
  3. CHAPTER II. BUDDHISM
  4. CHAPTER III. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS
  5. CHAPTER IV. LANGUAGE
  6. CHAPTER V. CITIZENSHIP
  7. CHAPTER VI. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY AND FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES
  8. CHAPTER VII. THE EXECUTIVE - The President of the Republic
  9. CHAPTER VIIA. THE EXECUTIVE - The Parliamentary Council
  10. SCHEDULE I
  11. SCHEDULE II
  12. PART I
  13. PART II
  14. CHAPTER VIII. THE EXECUTIVE - The Cabinet of Ministers
  15. CHAPTER IX. THE EXECUTIVE - The Public Service
  16. CHAPTER X. THE LEGISLATURE - Parliament
  17. CHAPTER XI. THE LEGISLATURE - Procedures and Powers
  18. CHAPTER XII. THE LEGISLATURE - AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
  19. CHAPTER XIII. THE REFERENDUM
  20. CHAPTER XIV. THE FRANCHISE AND ELECTIONS
  21. CHAPTER XIVA. ELECTION COMMISSION
  22. CHAPTER XV. THE JUDICIARY
  23. CHAPTER XVA. JUDICIAL SERVICE COMMISSION
  24. CHAPTER XVI. THE SUPERIOR COURTS
  25. CHAPTER XVII. FINANCE
  26. CHAPTER XVIIA
  27. CHAPTER XVIII. PUBLIC SECURITY
  28. CHAPTER XVIIIA. NATIONAL POLICE COMMISSION
  29. CHAPTER XIX. THE PARLIAMENTARY COMMISSIONER FOR ADMINISTRATION
  30. CHAPTER XX. GENERAL
  31. CHAPTER XXI. TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS
  32. CHAPTER XXII. INTERPRETATION
  33. CHAPTER XXIII. REPEAL
  34. CHAPTER XXIV. PROMULGATION OF THE CONSTITUTION
  35. FIRST SCHEDULE. Names of Administrative Districts (ARTICLE 5)
  36. SECOND SCHEDULE. The National Flag (ARTICLE 6)
  37. THIRD SCHEDULE. Words and Music of the National Anthem (ARTICLE 7
  38. FOURTH SCHEDULE. ARTICLES 32, 53, 61, 107, 165
  39. FIFTH SCHEDULE. ARTICLE 114(6)
  40. SIXTH SCHEDULE. ARTICLE 162(2)
  41. SEVENTH SCHEDULE. ARTICLE 157A AND ARTICLE 161(d) (iii)
  42. EIGHTH SCHEDULE. Provinces (Article 154A)
  43. NINTH SCHEDULE
  44. LIST I. PROVINCIAL COUNCIL LIST
  45. APPENDIX I. Law and Order
  46. SCHEDULE
  47. APPENDIX II. Land and Land Settlement
  48. APPENDIX III. Education
  49. LIST II. RESERVED LIST
  50. LIST III. CONCURRENT LIST

Constitution of Sri Lanka (1978, rev. 2010)

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3Preamble

4The PEOPLE OF SRI LANKA having, by their Mandate freely expressed and granted on the Sixth day of the waxing moon in the month of Adhi Nikini in the year Two Thousand Five Hundred and Twenty one of the Buddhist Era (being Thursday the Twenty first day of the month of July in the year One Thousand Nine Hundred and Seventy seven), entrusted to and empowered their Representatives elected on that day to draft, adopt and operate a new Republican Constitution in order to achieve the goals of a DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST REPUBLIC, and having solemnly resolved by the grant of such Mandate and the confidence reposed in their said Representatives who were elected by an overwhelming majority, to constitute SRI LANKA into a DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST REPUBLIC whilst ratifying the immutable republican principles of REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY and assuring to all peoples FREEDOM, EQUALITY, JUSTICE, FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS and the INDEPENDENCE OF THE JUDICIARY as the intangible heritage that guarantees the dignity and well-being of succeeding generations of the People of SRI LANKA and of all the people of the World, who come to share with those generations the effort of working for the creation and preservation of a JUSTAND FREE SOCIETY:

5WE, THE FREELY ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PEOPLE OF SRI LANKA, in pursuance of such Mandate, humbly acknowledging our obligations to our People and gratefully remembering their heroic and unremitting struggle to regain and preserve their rights and privileges so that the Dignity and Freedom of the Individual may be assured, Just, Social, Economic and Cultural Order attained, the Unity of the Country restored, and Concord established with other Nations,

6do hereby adopt and enact

7this

8CONSTITUTION

9as the

10SUPREME LAW

11of the

12DEMOCRATIC SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF SRI LANKA.

13CHAPTER I. THE PEOPLE, THE STATE AND SOVEREIGNTY

141. THE STATE

15Sri Lanka (Ceylon) is a Free, Sovereign, Independent and Democratic Socialist Republic and shall be known as the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.

162. UNITARY STATE

17The Republic of Sri Lanka is a Unitary State.

183. SOVEREIGNTY OF THE PEOPLE

19In the Republic of Sri Lanka sovereignty is in the People and is inalienable. Sovereignty includes the powers of government, fundamental rights and the franchise.

204. EXERCISE OF SOVEREIGNTY

21The Sovereignty of the People shall be exercised and enjoyed in the following manner:–

22a.the legislative power of the People shall be exercised by Parliament, consisting of elected representatives of the People and by the People at a Referendum;

23b.the executive power of the People, including the defence of Sri Lanka, shall be exercised by the President of the Republic elected by the People;

24c.the judicial power of the People shall be exercised by Parliament through courts, tribunals and institutions created and established, or recognized, by the Constitution, or created and established by law, except in regard to matters relating to the privileges, immunities and powers of Parliament and of its Members, wherein the judicial power of the People may be exercised directly by Parliament according to law;

25d.the fundamental rights which are by the Constitution declared and recognized shall be respected, secured and advanced by all the organs of government and shall not be abridged, restricted or denied, save in the manner and to the extent hereinafter provided; and

26e.the franchise shall be exercisable at the election of the President of the Republic and of the Members of Parliament and at every Referendum by every citizen who has attained the age of eighteen years and who, being qualified to be an elector as hereinafter provided, has his name entered in the register of electors.

275. TERRITORY OF THE REPUBLIC

28The territory of the Republic of Sri Lanka shall consist of the twenty-five administrative districts, the names of which are set out in the First Schedule and its territorial waters:

29Provided that such administrative districts may be subdivided or amalgamated so as to constitute different administrative districts, as Parliament may by resolution determine.

306. THE NATIONAL FLAG

31The National Flag of the Republic of Sri Lanka shall be the Lion Flag depicted in the Second Schedule.

327. THE NATIONAL ANTHEM

33The National Anthem of the Republic of Sri Lanka shall be “Sri Lanka Matha”, the words and music of which are set out in the Third Schedule.

348. THE NATIONAL DAY

35The National Day of the Republic of Sri Lanka shall be the fourth day of February.

36CHAPTER II. BUDDHISM

379. The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the foremost place and accordingly it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana, while assuring to all religions the rights granted by Articles 10 and 14(1)(e).

38CHAPTER III. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

3910. FREEDOM OF THOUGHT, CONSCIENCE AND RELIGION

40Every person is entitled to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, including the freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice.

4111. FREEDOM FROM TORTURE

42No person shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

4312. RIGHT TO EQUALITY

441. All persons are equal before the law and are entitled to the equal protection of the law.

452. No citizen shall be discriminated against on the grounds of race, religion, language, caste, sex, political opinion, place of birth or any one of such grounds:

46Provided that it shall be lawful to require a person to acquire within a reasonable time sufficient knowledge of any language as a qualification for any employment or office in the Public, Judicial or Local Government Service or in the service of any Public Corporation, where such knowledge is reasonably necessary for the discharge of the duties of such employment or office:

47Provided further that it shall be lawful to require a person to have a sufficient knowledge of any language as a qualification for any such employment or office where no function of that employment or office can be discharged otherwise than with a knowledge of that language.

483. No person shall, on the grounds of race, religion, language, caste, sex or any one of such grounds, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to access to shops, public restaurants, hotels, places of public entertainment and places of public worship of his own religion.

494. Nothing in this Article shall prevent special provision being made, by law, subordinate legislation or executive action, for the advancement of women, children or disabled persons.

5013. FREEDOM FROM ARBITRARY ARREST, DETENTION AND PUNISHMENT, AND PROHIBITION OF RETROSPECTIVE PENAL LEGISLATION

511. No person shall be arrested except according to procedure established by law. Any person arrested shall be informed of the reason for his arrest.

522. Every person held in custody, detained or otherwise deprived of personal liberty shall be brought before the judge of the nearest competent court according to procedure established by law and shall not be further held in custody, detained or deprived of personal liberty except upon and in terms of the order of such judge made in accordance with procedure established by law.

533. Any person charged with an offence shall be entitled to be heard, in person or by an attorney-at-law, at a fair trial by a competent court.

544. No person shall be punished with death or imprisonment except by order of a competent court, made in accordance with procedure established by law. The arrest, holding in custody, detention or other deprivation of personal liberty of a person, pending investigation or trial, shall not constitute punishment.

555. Every person shall be presumed innocent until he is proved guilty:

56Provided that the burden of proving particular facts may, by law, be placed on an accused person.

576. No person shall be held guilty of an offence on account of any act or omission which did not, at the time of such act or omission, constitute such an offence and no penalty shall be imposed for any offence more severe than the penalty in force at the time such offence was committed.

58Nothing in this Article shall prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles of law recognized by the community of nations.

59It shall not be contravention of this Article to require the imposition of a minimum penalty for an offence provided that such penalty does not exceed the maximum penalty prescribed for such offence at the time such offence was committed.

607. The arrest, holding in custody, detention or other deprivation of personal liberty of a person, by reason of a removal order or a deportation order made under the provisions of the Immigrants and Emigrants Act or the Indo-Ceylon Agreement (Implementation) Act, No. 14 of 1967, or such other law as may be enacted in substitution therefor, shall not be a contravention of this Article.

6114. FREEDOM OF SPEECH, ASSEMBLY, ASSOCIATION, OCCUPATION, MOVEMENT ETC

621. Every citizen is entitled to –

63a.the freedom of speech and expression including publication;

64b.the freedom of peaceful assembly;

65c.the freedom of association;

66d.the freedom to form and join a trade union;

67e.the freedom, either by himself or in association with others, and either in public or in private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching;

68f.the freedom by himself or in association with others to enjoy and promote his own culture and to use his own language;

69g.the freedom to engage by himself or in association with others in any lawful occupation, profession, trade, business or enterprise;

70h.the freedom of movement and of choosing his residence within Sri Lanka; and

71i.the freedom to return to Sri Lanka.

722. A person who, not being a citizen of any other country, has been permanently and legally resident in Sri Lanka immediately prior to the commencement of the Constitution and continues to be so resident shall be entitled, for a period of ten years from the commencement of the Constitution, to the rights declared and recognized by paragraph (1) of this Article.

7315. RESTRICTIONS ON FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

741. The exercise and operation of the fundamental rights declared and recognized by Articles 13(5) and 13(6) shall be subject only to such restrictions as may be prescribed by law in the interests of national security. For the purposes of this paragraph “law” includes regulations made under the law for the time being relating to public security.

752. The exercise and operation of the fundamental right declared and recognized by Article 14(1)(a) shall be subject to such restrictions as may be prescribed by law in the interests of racial and religious harmony or in relation to parliamentary privilege, contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.

763. The exercise and operation of the fundamental right declared and recognized by Article 14(1)(b) shall be subject to such restrictions as may be prescribed by law in the interests of racial and religious harmony.

774. The exercise and operation of the fundamental right declared and recognized by Article 14(1)(c) shall be subject to such restrictions as may be prescribed by law in the interests of racial and religious harmony or national economy.

785. The exercise and operation of the fundamental right declared and recognized by Article 14(1)(g) shall be subject to such restrictions as may be prescribed by law in the interests of national economy or in relation to –

79a.the professional, technical, academic, financial and other qualifications necessary for practising any profession or carrying on any occupation, trade, business or enterprise and the licensing and disciplinary control of the person entitled to such fundamental right; and

80b.the carrying on by the State, a State agency or a public corporation of any trade, business, industry, service or enterprise whether to the exclusion, complete or partial, of citizens or otherwise.

816. The exercise and operation of the fundamental right declared and recognized by Article 14(1)(h) shall be subject to such restrictions as may be prescribed by law in the interests of national economy.

827. The exercise and operation of all the fundamental rights declared and recognized by Articles 12, 13(1), 13(2) and 14 shall be subject to such restrictions as may be prescribed by law in the interests of national security, public order and the protection of public health or morality, or for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others, or of meeting the just requirements of the general welfare of a democratic society. For the purposes of this paragraph “law” includes regulations made under the law for the time being relating to public security.

838. The exercise and operation of the fundamental rights declared and recognized by Articles 12(1), 13 and 14 shall, in their application to the members of the Armed Forces, Police Force and other Forces charged with the maintenance of public order, be subject to such restrictions as may be prescribed by law in the interests of the proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline among them.

8416. EXISTING WRITTEN LAW AND UNWRITTEN LAW TO CONTINUE IN FORCE

851. All existing written law and unwritten law shall be valid and operative notwithstanding any inconsistency with the preceding provisions of this Chapter.

862. The subjection of any person on the order of a competent court to any form of punishment recognized by any existing written law shall not be a contravention of the provisions of this Chapter.

8717. REMEDY FOR THE INFRINGEMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS BY EXECUTIVE ACTION

88Every person shall be entitled to apply to the Supreme Court, as provided by Article 126, in respect of the infringement or imminent infringement, by executive or administrative action, of a fundamental right to which such person is entitled under the provisions of this Chapter.

89CHAPTER IV. LANGUAGE

9018. OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

911. The Official Language of Sri Lanka shall be Sinhala.

922. Tamil shall also be an official language.

933. English shall be the link language.

944. Parliament shall by law provide for the implementation of the provisions of this Chapter.

9519. NATIONAL LANGUAGES

96The National Languages of Sri Lanka shall be Sinhala and Tamil.

9720. USE OF NATIONAL LANGUAGES IN PARLIAMENT, PROVINCIAL COUNCILS AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES

98A Member of Parliament or a member of a Provincial Council or a Local Authority shall be entitled to perform his duties and discharge his functions in Parliament or in such Provincial Council or Local Authority in either of the National Languages.

9921. MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION

1001. A person shall be entitled to be educated through the medium of either of the National Languages:

101Provided that the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to an institution of higher education where the medium of instruction is a language other than a National Language.

1022. Where one National Language is a medium of instruction for or in any course, department or faculty of any University directly or indirectly financed by the State, the other National Language shall also be made a medium of instruction for or in such course, department or faculty for students who prior to their admission to such University, were educated through the medium of such other National Language:

103Provided that compliance with the preceding provisions of this paragraph shall not be obligatory if such other National Language is the medium of instruction for or in any like course, department or faculty either at any other campus or branch of such University or of any other like University.

1043. In this Article “University” includes any institution of higher education.

10522. LANGUAGES OF ADMINISTRATION

1061. Sinhala and Tamil shall be the languages of administration throughout Sri Lanka and Sinhala shall be the language of administration and be used for the maintenance of public records and the transaction of all business by public institutions of all the Provinces of Sri Lanka other than the Northern and Eastern Provinces where Tamil shall be so used:

107Provided that the President may, having regard to the proportion which the Sinhala or Tamil linguistic minority population in any unit comprising a division of an Assistant Government Agent, bears to the total population of that area, direct that both Sinhala and Tamil or a language other than the language used as the language of administration in the province in which such area may be situated, be used as the language of administration for such area.

1082. In any area where Sinhala is used as the language of administration a person other than an official acting in his official capacity, shall be entitled:

109a.to receive communications from and to communicate and transact business with, any official in his official capacity, in either Tamil or English;

110b.If the law recognizes his right to inspect or to obtain copies of or extracts from any official register, record, publication or other document, to obtain a copy of, or an extract from such register, record, publication or other document, or a translation thereof, as the case may be, in either Tamil or English;

111c.where a document is executed by any official for the purpose of being issued to him, to obtain such document or a translation thereof, in either Tamil or English;

1123. In any area where Tamil is used as the language of administration, a person other than an official acting in his official capacity, shall be entitled to exercise the rights and to obtain the services, referred to in sub paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of paragraph (2) of this Article, in Sinhala or English.

1134. A Provincial Council or a Local Authority which conducts its business in Sinhala shall be entitled to receive communications from and to communicate and transact business with, any official in his official capacity, in Sinhala and a Provincial Council or a Local Authority which conducts its business in Tamil shall be entitled to receive communications from and to communicate and transact business with, any official in his official capacity, in Tamil:

114Provided, however, that a Provincial Council, Local Authority, Public Institution or any official receiving communications from transacting business with any other or Provincial Council, Local Authority, Public Institution or an official functioning in an area in which a different language is used as the Language of administration shall be entitled to receive communications from and to communicate and transact business in English.

1155. A person shall be entitled to be examined through the medium of either Sinhala or Tamil or a language of his choice at any examination for the admission of persons to the Public Service, Judicial Service, Provincial Public Service, Local Government Service or any public institution, subject to the condition that he may be required to acquire a sufficient knowledge of Tamil or Sinhala, as the case may be, within a reasonable time after admission to such service or public institution where such knowledge is reasonably necessary for the discharge of his duties:

116Provided that a person may be required to have a sufficient knowledge of Sinhala or Tamil, as a condition for admission to any such service or public institution where no function of the office or employment for which he is recruited can be discharged otherwise than with a sufficient knowledge of such language.

1176. In this Article –

118“Official” means the President, any Minister, Deputy Minister, Governor, Chief Minister or Minister of the Board of Ministers of a Province, or any officer of a public institution; local authority or Provincial Council; and

119“Public Institution” means a department or institution of the Government, a public corporation or statutory institution.

12023. LANGUAGE OF LEGISLATION

1211. All laws and subordinate legislation shall be enacted or made and published in Sinhala and Tamil, together with a translation thereof in English:

122Provided that Parliament shall, at the stage of enactment of any law determine which text shall prevail in the event of any inconsistency between texts:

123Provided further that in respect of all other written laws and the text in which such written laws was enacted or adopted or made, shall prevail in the event of any inconsistency between such texts.

1242. All Orders, Proclamations, Rules, By-laws, Regulations and Notifications made or issued under any written law other than those made or issued by a Provincial Council or a Local Authority and the Gazette shall be published in Sinhala and Tamil together with a translation thereof in English.

1253. All Orders, Proclamations, Rules, By-laws, Regulations and Notifications made or issued under any written law by any Provincial Council or Local Authority and all documents, including circulars and forms issued by such body or any public institution shall be published in the Language used in the administration in the respective areas in which they function, together with a translation thereof in English.

1264. All laws and subordinate legislation in force immediately prior to the commencement of the Constitution, shall be published in the Gazette in the Sinhala and Tamil Language as expeditiously as possible.

12724. LANGUAGES OF THE COURTS

1281. Sinhala and Tamil shall be the languages of the Courts throughout Sri Lanka and Sinhala shall be used as the language of the courts situated in all the areas of Sri Lanka except those in any area where Tamil is the language of administration. The record and proceedings shall be in the language of the Court. In the event of an appeal from any court records shall also be prepared in the language of the court hearing the appeal, if the language of such court is other than the language used by the court from which the appeal is preferred:

129Provided that the Minister in charge of the subject of Justice may, with the concurrence of the cabinet of Ministers direct that the record of any court shall also be maintained and the proceedings conducted in a language other than the language of the court;

1302. Any party or applicant or any person legally entitled to represent such party or applicant may initiate proceedings and submit to court pleadings and other documents and participate in the proceedings in courts, in either Sinhala or Tamil.

1313. Any judge, juror, party or applicant or any person legally entitled to represent such party or applicant, who is not conversant with the language used in a court, shall be entitled to interpretation and to translation into Sinhala or Tamil provided by the State, to enable him to understand and participate in the proceedings before such court and shall also be entitled to obtain in such language any such part of the record or a translation thereof, as the case may be, as he may be entitled to obtain according to law.

1324. The Minister in charge of the subject of Justice may, with the concurrence of the Cabinet of Ministers, issue, directions permitting the use of English in or in relation to the records and proceedings in any court for all purposes or for such purposes as may be specified therein. Every judge shall be bound to implement such directions.

1335. In this Article –

134“Court” means any court or tribunal created and established for the administration of justice including the adjudication and settlement of industrial and other disputes, or any other tribunal or institution exercising judicial or quasi-judicial functions or any tribunal or institution created and established for the conciliation and settlement of disputes;

135"Judge” includes the President, Chairman, Presiding Officer and member of any court; and

136“Record” includes Pleadings, Judgments, Orders and Other judicial and Ministerial acts.

13725. PROVISION FOR ADEQUATE FACILITIES FOR USE OF LANGUAGES PROVIDED FOR IN THIS CHAPTER

138The State shall provide adequate facilities for the use of the languages provided for in this Chapter.

13925A. PROVISION OF ANY LAW INCONSISTENT WITH THIS CHAPTER DEEMED TO BE REPEALED

140In the event of any inconsistency between the provisions of any law and the provisions of this Chapter, the provisions of this Chapter shall prevail.

141CHAPTER V. CITIZENSHIP

14226. CITIZENSHIP OF SRI LANKA

1431. There shall be one status of citizenship known as “the status of a citizen of Sri Lanka”.

1442. A citizen of Sri Lanka shall for all purposes be described only as a “citizen of Sri Lanka”, whether such person became entitled to citizenship by descent or by virtue of registration in accordance with the law relating to citizenship.

1453. No distinction shall be drawn between citizens of Sri Lanka for any purpose by reference to the mode of acquisition of such status, as to whether acquired by descent or by virtue of registration.

1464. No citizen of Sri Lanka shall be deprived of his status of a citizen of Sri Lanka, except under and by virtue of the provisions of sections 19, 20, 21 and 22 of the Citizenship Act:

147Provided that the provisions of sections 23 and 24 of that Act shall also be applicable to a person who became entitled to the status of a citizen of Sri Lanka by virtue of registration under the provisions of section 11, 12 or 13 of that Act.

1485. Every person who immediately prior to the commencement of the Constitution was a citizen of Sri Lanka, whether by descent or by virtue of registration in accordance with any law relating to citizenship, shall be entitled to the status and to the rights of a citizen of Sri Lanka as provided in the preceding provisions of this Article.

1496. The provisions of all existing written laws relating to citizenship and all other existing written laws wherein reference is made to citizenship shall be read subject to the preceding provisions of this Article.

150CHAPTER VI. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY AND FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

15127. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

1521. The Directive Principles of State Policy herein contained shall guide Parliament, the President and the Cabinet of Ministers in the enactment of laws and the governance of Sri Lanka for the establishment of a just and free society.

1532. The State is pledged to establish in Sri Lanka a Democratic Socialist Society, the objectives of which include –

154a.the full realization of the fundamental rights and freedoms of all persons;

155b.the promotion of the welfare of the People by securing and protecting as effectively as it may, a social order in which justice (social, economic and political) shall guide all the institutions of the national life;

156c.the realization by all citizens of an adequate standard of living for themselves and their families, including adequate food, clothing and housing, the continuous improvement of living conditions and the full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities;

157d.the rapid development of the whole country by means of public and private economic activity and by laws prescribing such planning and controls as may be expedient for directing and co-ordinating such public and private economic activity towards social objectives and the public weal;

158e.the equitable distribution among all citizens of the material resources of the community and the social product, so as best to subserve the common good;

159f.the establishment of a just social order in which the means of production, distribution and exchange are not concentrated and centralised in the State, State agencies or in the hands of a privileged few, but are dispersed among and owned by, all the People of Sri Lanka;

160g.raising the moral and cultural standards of the People and ensuring the full development of human personality; and

161h.the complete eradication of illiteracy and the assurance to all persons of the right to universal and equal access to education at all levels.

1623. The State shall safeguard the independence, sovereignty, unity and the territorial integrity of Sri Lanka.

1634. The State shall strengthen and broaden the democratic structure of government and the democratic rights of the People by decentralising the administration and by affording all possible opportunities to the People to participate at every level in national life and in government.

1645. The State shall strengthen national unity by promoting co-operation and mutual confidence among all sections of the People of Sri Lanka, including the racial, religious, linguistic and other groups and shall take effective steps in the fields of teaching, education and information in order to eliminate discrimination and prejudice.

1656. The State shall ensure equality of opportunity to citizens, so that no citizen shall suffer any disability on the ground of race, religion, language, caste, sex, political opinion or occupation.

1667. The State shall eliminate economic and social privilege and disparity and the exploitation of man by man or by the State.

1678. The State shall ensure that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and the means of production to the common detriment.

1689. The State shall ensure social security and welfare.

16910. The State shall assist the development of the cultures and the languages of the People.

17011. The State shall create the necessary economic and social environment to enable people of all religious faiths to make a reality of their religious principles.

17112. The State shall recognize and protect the family as the basic unit of society.

17213. The State shall promote with special care the interests of children and youth, so as to ensure their full development, physical, mental, moral, religious and social, and to protect them from exploitation and discrimination.

17314. The State shall protect, preserve and improve the environment for the benefit of the community.

17415. The State shall promote international peace, security and cooperation, and the establishment of a just and equitable international economic and social order and shall endeavour to foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in dealings among nations.

17528. FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

176The exercise and enjoyment of rights and freedoms are inseparable from the performance of duties and obligations and accordingly it is the duty of every person in Sri Lanka –

177a.to uphold and defend the Constitution and the law;

178b.to further the national interest and to foster national unity;

179c.to work conscientiously in his chosen occupation;

180d.to preserve and protect public property and to combat misuse and waste of public property;

181e.to respect the rights and freedoms of others; and

182f.to protect nature and conserve its riches.

18329. PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY AND FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES NOT JUSTIFIABLE

184The provisions of this Chapter do not confer or impose legal rights or obligations and are not enforceable in any court or tribunal. No question of inconsistency with such provisions shall be raised in any court or tribunal.

185CHAPTER VII. THE EXECUTIVE - The President of the Republic

18630. THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC

1871. There shall be a President of the Republic of Sri Lanka, who is the Head of the State, the Head of the Executive and of the Government, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.

1882. The President of the Republic shall be elected by the People, and shall hold office for a term of six years.

18931. THE ELECTION AND THE TERM OF OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT

1901. Any citizen who is qualified to be elected to the office of President may be nominated as a candidate for such office –

191a.by a recognized political party; or

192b.if he is or has been an elected member of the legislature, by any other political party or by an elector whose name has been entered in any register of electors.

1932. [Repealed].

1943. The poll for the election of the President shall be taken not less than one month and not more than two months before the expiration of the term of office of the President in office.

1953A.

196a.

197i.Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in the preceding provisions of this Chapter, the President may, at any time after the expiration of four years from the commencement of his current term of office, by Proclamation, declare his intention of appealing to the People for a mandate to hold office, by election, for a further term:

198Provided that, where the President is elected in terms of this Article for a further term of office, the provisions of this Article shall mutatis mutandis apply in respect of any subsequent term of office to which he may be so elected.

199ii.Upon the making of a Proclamation under sub-paragraph (i) the Commissioner of Elections shall be required to take a poll for the election of the President.

200b.If, at any time after the date of Proclamation referred to in paragraph (a), and before the close of the poll at the election held in pursuance of such Proclamation, the President in office dies, such Proclamation shall be deemed to have been revoked with effect from the date of such death and the election to be held in pursuance of such Proclamation shall be deemed to be cancelled. The vacancy in the office of President caused by such death shall be filled in accordance with the provisions of Article 40.

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