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6Whereas various vusela consultations, economic and constitutional commissions, political experiments and Sibaya meetings have been established and undertaken in the last thirty years in search of a sustainable home-grown political order;
7Whereas it has become necessary to review the various constitutional documents, decrees, laws, customs and practices so as to promote good governance, the rule of law, respect for our institutions and the progressive development of the Swazi society;
8Whereas it is necessary to blend the good institutions of traditional Law and custom with those of an open and democratic society so as to promote transparency and the social, economic and cultural development of our Nation;
9Whereas it is necessary to protect and promote the fundamental rights and freedoms of ALL in our Kingdom in terms of a constitution which binds the Legislature, the Executive, the Judiciary and the other Organs and Agencies of the Government;
13Now, THEREFORE, WE, iNgwenyama–in-Council, acting together with and on the Approval of the Swazi Nation meeting as the Swazi National Council assembled at Ludzidzini this 4th day of October, 2004, hereby Accept the following Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land.
172. The territory of Swaziland comprises all the land that immediately before the 6th September 1968 comprised the former Protected State of Swaziland together with such additional land as may from time to time be declared to form part of Swaziland in accordance with international law.
261. The National Anthem and Flag of Swaziland shall be the Anthem or Flag lawfully in use at the time of commencement of this Constitution or such other Anthem or Flag as may from time to time be prescribed.
311. Without prejudice to the provisions of section 228, King and iNgwenyama of Swaziland is an hereditary Head of State and shall have such official name as shall be designated on the occasion of his accession to the Throne.
374. The King and iNgwenyama has such rights, prerogatives and obligations as are conferred on him by this Constitution or any other law, including Swazi law and custom, and shall exercise those rights, prerogatives and obligations in terms and in the spirit of this Constitution.
492. Until the King and iNgwenyama has been installed, that is to say, until he has publicly assumed the functions and responsibilities of the King and iNgwenyama in accordance with this Constitution and Swazi law and custom, or during any period when he is by reason of absence from Swaziland or any other cause unable to perform the functions of his office, those functions shall be performed, save as otherwise provided in this Constitution, by the Ndlovukazi acting as Queen Regent.
514. The Queen Regent shall be entitled to such remuneration as may be prescribed and that remuneration shall be paid out of the Consolidated Fund and shall not be reduced during the continuance in office of the Queen Regent.
525. Civil proceedings shall not be instituted or continued in respect of which relief is claimed against the Queen Regent for anything done or omitted to be done by the Queen Regent in her private capacity and shall not be summoned to appear as a witness in any civil or criminal proceedings.
536. Where provision is made by law limiting the time within which proceedings of any description may be brought against a person, the period during which that person held a position of Queen Regent shall not be taken into account in calculating the period of time prescribed by that law which determines whether any such proceedings as are mentioned in this section may be brought against that person.
622. Where the Ndlovukazi in her capacity as Queen Regent is temporarily out of the Kingdom or for any reason temporarily unable to perform the functions of her office, subject to any requirements under Swazi law and custom, the Umntfwanenkhosi Lomkhulu may perform those functions subject to any specific instructions she may make.
633. Umntfwanenkhosi Lomkhulu when acting in terms of subsection (2) shall be entitled to such remuneration as may be prescribed and that remuneration shall be paid out of the Consolidated Fund and shall not be reduced during his continuance in office.
644. Civil proceedings shall not be instituted or continued in respect of which relief is claimed against the Umntfwanenkhosi Lomkhulu when acting in terms of subsection (2) for anything done or omitted to be done by him in his private capacity and he shall not be summoned to appear as a witness in any civil or criminal proceedings.
655. Where provision is made by law limiting the time within which proceedings of any description may be brought against a person, the period during which that person held a position of Umntfwanenkhosi Lomkhulu in terms of subsection (2) shall not be taken into account in calculating the period of time prescribed by that law which determines whether such proceedings as are mentioned in this section may be brought against that person.
942. The fundamental rights and freedoms enshrined in this Chapter shall be respected and upheld by the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary and other organs or agencies of Government and, where applicable to them, by all natural and legal persons in Swaziland, and shall be enforceable by the courts as provided in this Constitution.
953. A person of whatever gender, race, place of origin, political opinion, colour, religion, creed, age or disability shall be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual contained in this Chapter but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest.
971. A person shall not be deprived of life intentionally save in the execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence under the law of Swaziland of which that person has been convicted.
1004. Without prejudice to any liability for a contravention of any other law with respect to the use of force in such cases as are mentioned in this subsection, a person shall not be regarded as having been deprived of life in contravention of this section if death results from use of force to such extent as is reasonably justifiable and proportionate in the circumstances of the case -
114 a.in execution of the sentence or order of a court, whether established for Swaziland or another country, or of an international court or tribunal in respect of a conviction of a criminal offence;
121 h.in the case of a person who is, or is reasonably suspected to be, of unsound mind, addicted to drugs or alcohol, or a vagrant, for the purpose of the care or treatment of that person or the protection of the community;
122 i.for the purpose of preventing the unlawful entry of that person into Swaziland, or for the purpose of effecting the expulsion, extradition or other lawful removal of that person from Swaziland or for the purpose of restricting that person while being conveyed through Swaziland in the course of the extradition or removal of that person as a convicted prisoner from one country to another; or
126 iii.reasonably justifiable for restraining that person during any visit, which that person is permitted to make to any part of Swaziland in which, in consequence of that order, the presence of that person would otherwise be unlawful.
1272. A person who is arrested or detained shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in a language which that person understands, of the reasons for the arrest or detention and of the right of that person to a legal representative chosen by that person.
1324. Where a person arrested or detained pursuant to the provisions of subsection (3), is not brought before a court within forty-eight hours of the arrest or detention, the burden of proving that the provisions of subsection (3) have been complied with shall rest upon any person alleging that compliance.
1335. Where a person is brought before a court in execution of the order of a court in any proceedings or upon any suspicion of that person having committed or being about to commit an offence, that person shall not be further held in custody in connection with those proceedings or that offence save upon the order of a court.
1387. If a person is arrested or detained as mentioned in subsection (3) (b) then, without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against that person, that person shall be released either unconditionally or upon reasonable conditions, including in particular such conditions as are reasonably necessary to ensure that that person appears at a later date for trial or for proceedings preliminary to trial.
1398. A person who is unlawfully arrested or detained by any other person shall be entitled to compensation from that other person or from any other person or authority on whose behalf that other person was acting.
1409. Where a person is convicted and sentenced to a term of imprisonment for an offence, any period that person has spent in lawful custody in respect of that offence before the completion of the trial of that person shall be taken into account in imposing the term of imprisonment.
146 b.required of any person while that person is lawfully detained which, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of the court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which that person is detained;
147 c.required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of the duties of that member or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of that service;
148 d.required during a period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of that labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or
1632. For the avoidance of any doubt, a person shall not be discriminated against on the grounds of gender, race, colour, ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, or social or economic standing, political opinion, age or disability.
1643. For the purposes of this section, “discriminate” means to give different treatment to different persons attributable only or mainly to their respective descriptions by gender, race, colour, ethnic origin, birth, tribe, creed or religion, or social or economic standing, political opinion, age or disability.
1665. Nothing in this section shall prevent Parliament from enacting laws that are necessary for implementing policies and programmes aimed at redressing social, economic or educational or other imbalances in society.
1681. In the determination of civil rights and obligations or any criminal charge a person shall be given a fair and speedy public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial court or adjudicating authority established by law.
175 f.afforded facilities to examine in person or by a legal representative the witnesses called by the prosecution and to obtain the attendance of witnesses to testify on behalf of that person on the same conditions as those applying to witnesses called by the prosecution; and
1773. Except with the free consent of the person concerned and for purposes of subsection (2), the trial shall not take place in the absence of that person unless that person acts so as to render the continuance of the proceedings in the presence of that person impracticable and the court has ordered that person to be removed and the trial to proceed in the absence of that person.
1784. Where a person is tried for any criminal offence, the accused person or person authorised by the accused person shall, if the accused person or person authorised by the accused person so requires and subject to payment of such reasonable fee as may be prescribed by law, be given within a reasonable time after judgment a copy for the use of the accused person of any record of the proceedings made by or on behalf of the court.
1806. A penalty shall not be imposed for any criminal offence that is severer in degree or description than the maximum penalty that might have been imposed for that offence at the time when it was committed.
1817. A person who has been tried by a competent court for a criminal offence and either convicted or acquitted shall not again be tried for that offence or for any other criminal offence of which that person could have been convicted at the trial for the offence, save upon the order of a superior court made in the course of appeal or review proceedings relating to the conviction or acquittal.
18410. Any court or other adjudicating authority prescribed by law for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation shall be established by law and shall be independent and impartial; and where proceedings for such a determination are instituted by any person before such a court or other adjudicating authority, the case shall be given a fair hearing within a reasonable time.
188 i.in circumstances where publicity may unduly prejudice the interests of defence, public safety, public order, justice, or public morality or would prejudice the welfare of persons under the age of eighteen years or as the court may deem appropriate; or
190 b.shall, where it is so prescribed by a law that is reasonably required in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, justice, public morality, the welfare of persons under the age of eighteen years or the protection of the private lives of the persons concerned in the proceedings, exclude from its proceedings persons, other than the parties and their legal representatives, to such extent as is so prescribed.
194 c.subsection (2) (f) to the extent that the law in question imposes conditions that should be satisfied if witnesses called to testify on behalf of an accused person are to be paid their expenses out of public funds; or
195 d.subsection (7) to the extent that the law in question authorises a court to try a member of a disciplined force for a criminal offence notwithstanding any trial and conviction or acquittal of that member under the disciplinary law of that force, so, however, that any court so trying and convicting that member shall in sentencing that member to any punishment take into account any punishment awarded under that disciplinary law.
19614. In the case of a person who is held in lawful detention, the provisions of subsections (1), (2) (e) and (f) and (3) shall not apply in relation to the trial of that person for a criminal offence under the law regulating the discipline of persons held in such detention.
19715. In this section “criminal offence” means a criminal offence under the law of Swaziland, and “proceedings” in relation to a court or adjudicating authority includes the announcement of the decision of the court or adjudicating authority.