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Constitution of Trinidad and Tobago (1976, rev. 2007)

1The following text is from the Constitute Project, who through a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, has generously made this content available for use for noncommercial purposes. Follow (right-click) the links and read the annotation to learn more. 4

2


3Preamble

4Whereas the People of Trinidad and Tobago—

5a.have affirmed that the Nation of Trinidad and Tobago is founded upon principles that acknowledge the supremacy of God, faith in fundamental human rights and freedoms, the position of the family in a society of free men and free institutions, the dignity of the human person and the equal and inalienable rights with which all members of the human family are endowed by their Creator;

6b.respect the principles of social justice and therefore believe that the operation of the economic system should result in the material resources of the community being so distributed as to subserve the common good, that there should be adequate means of livelihood for all, that labour should not be exploited or forced by economic necessity to operate in inhumane conditions but that there should be opportunity for advancement on the basis of recognition of merit, ability and integrity;

7c.have asserted their belief in a democratic society in which all persons may, to the extent of their capacity, play some part in the institutions of the national life and thus develop and maintain due respect for lawfully constituted authority;

8d.recognise that men and institutions remain free only when freedom is founded upon respect for moral and spiritual values and the rule of law;

9e.desire that their Constitution should enshrine the above-mentioned principles and beliefs and make provision for ensuring the protection in Trinidad and Tobago of fundamental human rights and freedoms;

10Now, therefore, the following provisions shall have effect as the Constitution of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago:

11PRELIMINARY

121. THE STATE

131. The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago shall be a sovereign democratic State.

142. Trinidad and Tobago shall comprise the Island of Trinidad, the Island of Tobago and any territories that immediately before the 31st day of August, 1962 were dependencies of Trinidad and Tobago, including the seabed and subsoil situated beneath the territorial sea and the continental shelf of Trinidad and Tobago (“territorial sea” and “continental shelf” here having the same meaning as in the Territorial Sea Act, 1969 and the Continental Shelf Act, 1969, respectively), together with such other areas as may be declared by Act to form part of the territory of Trinidad and Tobago.

152. THE SUPREME LAW

16This Constitution is the supreme law of Trinidad and Tobago, and any other law that is inconsistent with this Constitution is void to the extent of the inconsistency.

173. INTERPRETATION

181. In this Constitution—

19“the Cabinet” means the Cabinet constituted under this Constitution;

20“the Commonwealth” means Trinidad and Tobago, any country to which section 18 applies and any dependency of any such country;

21“Court” means any court of law in Trinidad and Tobago other than a court martial and shall be construed as including the Judicial Committee;

22“financial year” means any period of twelve months beginning on the first day of January in any year or such other date as may be prescribed;

23“general election” means a general election of members to serve in the House of Representatives;

24“House” means either the House of Representatives or the Senate as the context may require;

25“Judge” includes the Chief Justice, a Judge of Appeal and a Puisne Judge;

26“Judicial Committee” means the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council established by the Judicial Committee Act, 1833 of the United Kingdom as from time to time amended by any Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom;

27“law” includes any enactment, and any Act or statutory instrument of the United Kingdom that before the commencement of this Constitution had effect as part of the law of Trinidad and Tobago, having the force of law and any unwritten rule of law;

28“oath” includes affirmation;

29“oath of allegiance” means the oath of allegiance set out in the First Schedule or such other oath as may be prescribed;

30“Parliament” means the Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago;

31“parliamentary election” means an election of a member or members to serve in the House of Representatives;

32“prescribed” means prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament;

33“public office” means an office of emolument in the public service;

34“public officer” means the holder of any public office and includes any person appointed to act in any such office;

35“public service” means subject to the provisions of subsections (4) and (5), the service of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago 1[or of the Tobago House of Assembly established by section 3 of the Tobago House of Assembly Act,] in a civil capacity;

36“Service Commission” means the Judicial and Legal Service Commission, the Public Service Commission, the Police Service Commission or the Teaching Service Commission;

37“session” means, in relation to a House, the sittings of that House commencing when it first meets after this Constitution comes into force or after the prorogation or dissolution of Parliament at any time, and terminating when Parliament is prorogued or is dissolved without having been prorogued;

38“sitting” means, in relation to a House, a period during which that House is sitting continuously without adjournment, and includes any period during which the House is in committee;

39“Trinidad and Tobago” has the meaning attributed to that expression in the Trinidad and Tobago Independence Act, 1962;

40“the former Constitution” means the Trinidad and Tobago Constitution set out in the Second Schedule to the Trinidad and Tobago (Constitution) Order-in-Council, 1962.

412. In this Constitution—

42a.a reference to an appointment to any office shall be construed as including a reference to the appointment of a person to act in or perform the functions of that office at any time when the office is vacant or the holder thereof is unable (whether by reason of absence or infirmity of mind or body or any other cause) to perform the functions of that office; and

43b.a reference to the holder of an office by the term designating his office shall be construed as including a reference to any person for the time being lawfully acting in or performing the functions of that office.

443. Where by this Constitution any person is directed, or power is conferred on any person or authority to appoint a person to perform the functions of an office if the holder thereof is unable to perform those functions, the validity of any performance of those functions by the person so directed or of any appointment made in exercise of that power shall not be called in question in any court on the ground that the holder of the office is not unable to perform the functions of the office.

454. For the purposes of this Constitution a person shall not be considered to hold an office in the public service by reason only that—

46a.he is in receipt of a pension or other like allowance in respect of public service;

47b.he holds the office of—

48i.President;

49ii.Speaker, President of the Senate, Deputy Speaker or Vice-President of the Senate, Minister, Parliamentary Secretary, member or temporary member of the Senate or member of the House of Representatives;

50iii.Ombudsman or member of the Integrity Commission or member of any other Commission established by this Constitution;

51iv.Judge or member of a Superior Court of Record or any special judicial tribunal established by Act of Parliament or member of the Public Service Appeal Board;

52v.member of any board, commission, committee or similar body, whether incorporated or not, established by any enactment;

53vi.member of the personal staff of the President.

54c.he is—

55i.a consultant or adviser appointed for specific purposes; or

56ii.a person appointed on contract for a period not exceeding five years.

575. Where Parliament so provides, a person shall not be considered for the purposes of this Constitution or any part of this Constitution to hold office in the public service by reason only that he is the holder of a special office established by or under an Act.

586. References in this Constitution to the power to remove a public officer from his office shall be construed as including references to any power conferred by any law to require or permit that officer to retire from the public service.

597. Any power conferred by any law to permit a person to retire from the public service shall, in the case of any public officer who may be removed from office by some person or authority other than a Commission established by this Constitution, vest in the Public Service Commission.

608. Nothing in subsection (6) shall be construed as conferring on any person or authority power to require a Judge or the Auditor General to retire from the public service.

619. Where any power is conferred by this Constitution to make any proclamation, order, rules or regulations or to give any directions, the power shall be construed as including a power exercisable in like manner to amend or revoke any such proclamation, order, rules regulations or directions.

62CHAPTER 1. THE RECOGNITION AND PROTECTION OF FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

63PART 1. RIGHTS ENSHRINED

644. RECOGNITION AND DECLARATION OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

65It is hereby recognised and declared that in Trinidad and Tobago there have existed and shall continue to exist without discrimination by reason of race, origin, colour, religion or sex, the following fundamental human rights and freedoms, namely:—

66a.the right of the individual to life, liberty, security of the person and enjoyment of property and the right not to be deprived thereof except by due process of law;

67b.the right of the individual to equality before the law and the protection of the law;

68c.the right of the individual to respect for his private and family life;

69d.the right of the individual to equality of treatment from any public authority in the exercise of any functions;

70e.the right to join political parties and to express political views;

71f.the right of a parent or guardian to provide a school of his own choice for the education of his child or ward;

72g.freedom of movement;

73h.freedom of conscience and religious belief and observance;

74i.freedom of thought and expression;

75j.freedom of association and assembly; and

76k.freedom of the press.

775. PROTECTION OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

781. Except as is otherwise expressly provided in this Chapter and in section 54, no law may abrogate, abridge or infringe or authorise the abrogation, abridgement or infringement of any of the rights and freedoms hereinbefore recognised and declared.

792. Without prejudice to subsection (1), but subject to this Chapter and to section 54, Parliament may not—

80a.authorise or effect the arbitrary detention, imprisonment or exile of any person;

81b.impose or authorise the imposition of cruel and unusual treatment or punishment;

82c.deprive a person who has been arrested or detained—

83i.of the right to be informed promptly and with sufficient particularity of the reason for his arrest or detention;

84ii.of the right to retain and instruct without delay a legal adviser of his own choice and to hold communication with him;

85iii.of the right to be brought promptly before an appropriate judicial authority;

86iv.of the remedy by way of habeas corpus for the determination of the validity of his detention and for his release if the detention is not lawful;

87d.authorise a court, tribunal, commission, board or other authority to compel a person to give evidence unless he is afforded protection against self-incrimination and, where necessary to ensure such protection, the right to legal representation;

88e.deprive a person of the right to a fair hearing in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice for the determination of his rights and obligations;

89f.deprive a person charged with a criminal offence of the right—

90i.to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law, but this shall not invalidate a law by reason only that the law imposes on any such person the burden of proving particular facts;

91ii.to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal or;

92iii.to reasonable bail without just cause;

93g.deprive a person of the right to the assistance of an interpreter in any proceedings in which he is involved or in which he is a party or a witness, before a court, commission, board or other tribunal, if he does not understand or speak English; or

94h.deprive a person of the right to such procedural provisions as are necessary for the purpose of giving effect and protection to the aforesaid rights and freedoms.

95PART 2. EXCEPTIONS FOR EXISTING LAW

966. SAVINGS FOR EXISTING LAW

971. Nothing in sections 4 and 5 shall invalidate—

98a.an existing law;

99b.an enactment that repeals and re-enacts an existing law without alteration; or

100c.an enactment that alters an existing law but does not derogate from any fundamental right guaranteed by this Chapter in a manner in which or to an extent to which the existing law did not previously derogate from that right.

1012. Where an enactment repeals and re-enacts with modifications an existing law and is held to derogate from any fundamental right guaranteed by this Chapter in a manner in which or to an extent to which the existing law did not previously derogate from that right then, subject to sections 13 and 54, the provisions of the existing law shall be substituted for such of the provisions of the enactment as are held to derogate from the fundamental right in a manner in which or to an extent to which the existing law did not previously derogate from that right.

1023. In this section—

103“alters” in relation to an existing law, includes repealing that law and re-enacting it with modifications or making different provisions in place of it or modifying it;

104“existing law” means a law that had effect as part of the law of Trinidad and Tobago immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, and includes any enactment referred to in subsection (1);

105“right” includes freedom.

106PART 3. EXCEPTIONS FOR EMERGENCIES

1077. EMERGENCY POWERS

1081. Without prejudice to the power of Parliament to make provision in the premise, but subject to this section, where any period of public emergency exists, the President may, due regard being had to the circumstances of any situation likely to arise or exist during such period make regulations for the purpose of dealing with that situation and issue orders and instructions for the purpose of the exercise of any powers conferred on him or any other person by any Act referred to in subsection (3) or instrument made under this section or any such Act.

1092. Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1) regulations made under that subsection may, subject to section 11, make provision for the detention of persons.

1103. An Act that is passed during a period of public emergency and is expressly declared to have effect only during that period or any regulations made under subsection (1) shall have effect even though inconsistent with sections 4 and 5 except in so far as its provisions may be shown not to be reasonably justifiable for the purpose of dealing with the situation that exists during that period.

1118. PERIOD OF PUBLIC EMERGENCY

1121. Subject to this section, for the purposes of this Chapter, the President may from time to time make a Proclamation declaring that a state of public emergency exists.

1132. A Proclamation made by the President under subsection (1) shall not be effective unless it contains a declaration that the President is satisfied—

114a.that a public emergency has arisen as a result of the imminence of a state of war between Trinidad and Tobago and a foreign State;

115b.that a public emergency has arisen as a result of the occurrence of any earthquake, hurricane, flood, fire, outbreak of pestilence or of infectious disease, or other calamity whether similar to the foregoing or not; or

116c.that action has been taken, or is immediately threatened, by any person, of such a nature and on so extensive a scale, as to be likely to endanger the public safety or to deprive the community or any substantial portion of the community of supplies or services essential to life.

1179. GROUNDS FOR, AND INITIAL DURATION OF PROCLAMATION

1181. Within three days of the making of the Proclamation, the President shall deliver to the Speaker for presentation to the House of Representatives a statement setting out the specific grounds on which the decision to declare the existence of a state of public emergency was based, and a date shall be fixed for a debate on this statement as soon as practicable but in any event not later that fifteen days from the date of the Proclamation.

1192. A Proclamation made by the President for the purposes of and in accordance with this section shall, unless previously revoked, remain in force for fifteen days.

12010. EXTENSION OF PROCLAMATION

1211. Before its expiration the Proclamation may be extended from time to time by resolution supported by a simple majority vote of the House of Representatives, so however, that no extension exceeds three months and the extensions do not in the aggregate exceed six months.

1222. The Proclamation may be further extended from time to time for not more than three months at any one time, by a resolution passed by both Houses of Parliament and supported by the votes of not less than three-fifths of all the members of each House.

1233. The Proclamation may be revoked at any time by a resolution supported by a simple majority vote of the House of Representatives.

1244. In this Chapter “period of public emergency” means any period during which—

125a.Trinidad and Tobago is engaged in any war; or

126b.there is in force a Proclamation by the President declaring that a state of public emergency exists; or

127c.there is in force a resolution of both Houses of Parliament supported by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all the members of each House declaring that democratic institutions in Trinidad and Tobago are threatened by subversion.

12811. DETENTION OF PERSONS

1291. Where any person who is lawfully detained by virtue only of such an Act or regulations as is referred to in section 7 so requests at any time during the period of that detention and thereafter not earlier than six months after he last made such a request during that period, his case shall be reviewed by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law and presided over by a person appointed by the Chief Justice from among the persons entitled to practise in Trinidad and Tobago as barristers or solicitors.

1302. On any review by a tribunal in pursuance of subsection (1) of the case of any detained person, the tribunal may make recommendations concerning the necessity or expediency of continuing his detention to the authority by whom it was ordered but, unless otherwise provided by law, that authority shall not be obliged to act in accordance with such recommendations.

13112. PUBLICATION

1321. Where at any time it is impracticable or inexpedient to publish in the Gazette any Proclamation, Notice, Regulation or Order in pursuance of this Part, the President may cause the same to be published by notices thereof affixed to public buildings or distributed amongst the public or by oral public announcements.

1332. Upon the publication of any Proclamation under this Part all such detention orders, curfew orders or other instruments, directions or instructions as are authorised to be made, issued or given by any regulations referred to in section 7 may be made, issued or given and executed upon any person or authority, even if such regulations have not yet been published pursuant to subsection (1).

134PART 4. EXCEPTIONS FOR CERTAIN LEGISLATION

13513. ACTS INCONSISTENT WITH SECTIONS 4 AND 5

1361. An Act to which this section applies may expressly declare that it shall have effect even though inconsistent with sections 4 and 5 and, if any such Act does so declare, it shall have effect accordingly unless the Act is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a society that has a proper respect for the rights and freedoms of the individual.

1372. An Act to which this section applies is one the Bill for which has been passed by both Houses of Parliament and at the final vote thereon in each House has been supported by the votes of not less than three-fifths of all the members of that House.

1383. For the purposes of subsection (2) the number of members of the Senate shall, notwithstanding the appointment of temporary members in accordance with section 44, be deemed to be the number of members specified in section 40(1).

139PART 5. GENERAL

14014. ENFORCEMENT OF THE PROTECTIVE PROVISIONS

1411. For the removal of doubts it is hereby declared that if any person alleges that any of the provisions of this Chapter has been, is being, or is likely to be contravened in relation to him, then without prejudice to any other action with respect to the same matter which is lawfully available, that person may apply to the High Court for redress by way of originating motion.

1422. The High Court shall have original jurisdiction—

143a.to hear and determine any application made by any person in pursuance of subsection (1), and

144b.to determine any question arising in the case of any person which is referred to it in pursuance of subsection (4),

145and may, subject to subsection (3), make such orders, issue such writs and give such directions as it may consider appropriate for the purpose of enforcing, or securing the enforcement of, any of the provisions of this Chapter to the protection of which the person concerned is entitled.

1463. The State Liability and Proceedings Act, 1966 shall have effect for the purpose of any proceedings under this section.

1474. Where in any proceedings in any court other than the High Court or the Court of Appeal any question arises as to the contravention of any of the provisions of this Chapter the person presiding in that court may, and shall if any party to the proceedings so requests, refer the question to the High Court unless in his opinion the raising of the question is merely frivolous or vexatious.

1485. Any person aggrieved by any determination of the High Court under this section may appeal therefrom to the Court of Appeal and shall be entitled as of right to a stay of execution of the order and may in the discretion of the Court be granted bail.

1496. Nothing in this section shall limit the power of Parliament to confer on the High Court or the Court of Appeal such powers as Parliament may think fit in relation to the exercise by the High Court or the Court of Appeal, as the case may be, of its jurisdiction in respect of the matters arising under this Chapter.

150CHAPTER 2. CITIZENSHIP

15115. CONTINUATION OF CITIZENSHIP OF CITIZENS UNDER SECTION 9 OF FORMER CONSTITUTION

152Any person who became a citizen by birth under section 9(1) or a citizen by descent under section 9(2) of the former Constitution and who has not ceased to be a citizen under that Constitution, shall continue to be a citizen under this Constitution.

15316. CONTINUATION OF CITIZENSHIP OF CITIZENS BY REGISTRATION, NATURALIZATION, ETC

154Any person who became a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago by virtue of registration under the former Constitution or by virtue of an acquisition of citizenship under Part II of the Trinidad and Tobago Citizenship Act, 1962, and who has not ceased to be a citizen under any law in force in Trinidad and Tobago shall continue to be a citizen under this Constitution.

15517. ACQUISITION OF CITIZENSHIP BY BIRTH OR DESCENT. CONTINUATION OF CITIZENSHIP. RETROSPECTIVE CITIZENSHIP

1561. Subject to subsection (2), every person born in Trinidad and Tobago after the commencement of this Constitution shall become a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago at the date of his birth.

1572. A person shall not become a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago by virtue of subsection (1), if at the time of his birth—

158a.neither of his parents is a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago and either of them possesses such immunity from suit and legal process as is accorded to an envoy of a foreign sovereign power accredited to Trinidad and Tobago; or

159b.either of his parents is an enemy alien and the birth occurred in a place then under occupation by the enemy.

1603. A person born outside Trinidad and Tobago after the commencement of this Constitution shall become a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago at the date of his birth if at that date either of his parents is, or was, but for his parent’s death, a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago otherwise than by descent, so however that, in the case of a person employed in service under the Government or under an authority of the Government that requires him to reside outside Trinidad and Tobago for the proper discharge of his functions, this subsection shall be read as if the words “otherwise than by descent” were deleted.

1614. Any person who became a citizen by birth under section 12(1) or a citizen by descent under section 12(2) of the former Constitution and who has not ceased to be a citizen under that Constitution, shall continue to be a citizen under this Constitution.

1625. A person born outside Trinidad and Tobago after the 30th August, 1962 whose mother was a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago otherwise than by descent at the date of his birth but who did not become a citizen at that date shall be deemed to have become a citizen at that date and shall continue to be a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago under this Constitution.

16318. COMMONWEALTH CITIZENS

1641. Every person who under this Constitution or any Act of Parliament is a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago or, under any law for the time being in force in any country to which this section applies, is a citizen of that country shall, by virtue of that citizenship, have the status of a Commonwealth citizen.

1652. Every person who is a British subject without citizenship under the British Nationality Act, 1948 of the United Kingdom or who continues to be a British subject under section 2 of that Act or who is a British subject under the British Nationality Act, 1965 of the United Kingdom shall, by virtue of that status, have the status of a Commonwealth citizen.

1663. The countries to which this section applies are Australia, the Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Botswana, Canada, Cyprus, Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Nauru, New Zealand, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Uganda, United Kingdom and Colonies, Western Samoa and Zambia.

1674. The President may from time to time, by Order subject to affirmative resolution of the Senate and the House of Representatives amend subsection (3) by adding any Commonwealth country thereto or by deleting any Commonwealth country therefrom.

16819. CRIMINAL LIABILITY OF COMMONWEALTH CITIZENS

1691. A Commonwealth citizen who is not a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago, or a citizen of the Republic of Ireland who is not a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago, shall not be guilty of any offence against any law in force in Trinidad and Tobago by reason of anything done or omitted in any part of the Commonwealth other than Trinidad and Tobago or in the Republic of Ireland or in any foreign country unless—

170a.the act or omission would be an offence if he were an alien; and

171b.in the case of an act or omission in any part of the Commonwealth or in the Republic of Ireland, it would be an offence if the country in which the act was done or the omission made were a foreign country.

1722. In this section “foreign country” means a country (other than the Republic of Ireland) that is not part of the Commonwealth.

17320. POWERS OF PARLIAMENT

174Parliament may make provisions relating to citizenship including provision—

175a.for the acquisition of citizenship of Trinidad and Tobago by persons who are not or do not become citizens of Trinidad and Tobago by virtue of the provisions of this Chapter;

176b.for depriving of his citizenship of Trinidad and Tobago any citizen of Trinidad and Tobago but only on the acquisition of citizenship of some other country in the case of a citizen by birth or descent; or

177c.for the renunciation by any person of his citizenship of Trinidad and Tobago.

17821. INTERPRETATION OF CHAPTER 2

1791. In this Chapter—

180“alien” means a person who is not a Commonwealth citizen, a British protected person or a citizen of the Republic of Ireland;

181“British protected person” means a person who is a British protected person for the purposes of the British Nationality Act, 1948 of the United Kingdom;

182“citizen by birth” means a person—

183a.who is a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago under section 17(1); or

184b.who became a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago under section 9(1) or 12(1) of the former Constitution;

185“citizen by descent” means a person—

186a.who is a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago under section 17(3) or any enactment; or

187b.who became a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago under section 9(2) or 12(2) of the former Constitution.

188.

1892. For the purposes of this Chapter, a person born outside Trinidad and Tobago aboard a registered ship or aircraft, or aboard an unregistered ship or aircraft of the government of any country, shall be deemed to have been born in the place in which the ship or aircraft has been registered or, as the case may be, in that country.

190CHAPTER 3. THE PRESIDENT

19122. ESTABLISHMENT OF OFFICE AND ELECTION OF PRESIDENT

192There shall be a President of Trinidad and Tobago elected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter who shall be the Head of State and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.

19323. QUALIFICATIONS AND DISQUALIFICATIONS FOR OFFICE OF PRESIDENT

1941. A person is qualified to be nominated for election as President if, and is not so qualified unless, he is a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago of the age of thirty-five years or upwards who at the date of his nomination has been ordinarily resident in Trinidad and Tobago for ten years immediately preceding his nomination.

1952. For the purposes of subsection (1) a person shall be deemed to reside in Trinidad and Tobago if he holds an office in the service of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago and lives outside Trinidad and Tobago because he is required to do so for the proper discharge of his functions.

1963. A person is not qualified to be nominated for election as President who is disqualified for election as a member of the House of Representatives by virtue of section 48(1) or any law made under section 48(2).

19724. OTHER CONDITIONS OF OFFICE

1981. Where a member of the Senate or the House of Representatives is elected as President, his seat in the Senate or the House of Representatives respectively, shall thereupon become vacant.

1992. Except in the case of a person acting as, or performing the functions of President under section 27, but subject to sections 44(2) and 56(8), the President shall not hold any other office of emolument or profit whether in the public service or otherwise.

2003. The salary and allowances of a President and his other terms of service shall not be altered to his disadvantage after he has assumed office.

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