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Constitution of Uzbekistan (1992)

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2


3Preamble

4The people of Uzbekistan,

5solemnly declaring their adherence to human rights and principles of state sovereignty,

6aware of their ultimate responsibility to the present and the future generations,

7relying on historical experience in the development of Uzbek statehood,

8affirming their commitment to the ideals of democracy and social justice,

9recognizing priority of the generally accepted norms of the international law,

10aspiring to a worthy life for the citizens of the Republic,

11setting forth the task of creating a humane and democratic rule of law,

12aiming to ensure civil peace and national accord,

13represented by their plenipotentiary deputies adopt the present Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

14PART ONE. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

15CHAPTER 1. STATE SOVEREIGNTY

16ARTICLE 1

17Uzbekistan is a sovereign democratic republic. Both names of the state—the Republic of Uzbekistan and Uzbekistan—shall be equivalent.

18ARTICLE 2

19The state shall express the will of the people and serve their interests. State bodies and officials shall be accountable to the society and the citizens.

20ARTICLE 3

21The Republic of Uzbekistan shall determine its national-state and administrative-territorial structure, its structure of state authority and administration, and shall pursue independent home and foreign policies.

22The state frontier and the territory of Uzbekistan shall be inviolable and indivisible.

23ARTICLE 4

24The state language of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be Uzbek.

25The Republic of Uzbekistan shall ensure a respectful attitude toward the languages, customs and traditions of all nationalities and ethnic groups living on its territory, and create the conditions necessary for their development.

26ARTICLE 5

27The Republic of Uzbekistan shall have its state symbols—the flag, the emblem, and the anthem—sanctioned by the law.

28ARTICLE 6

29The capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be the city of Tashkent.

30CHAPTER 2. DEMOCRACY

31ARTICLE 7

32The people are the sole source of state power. State power in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be exercised in the interests of the people and solely by the bodies empowered therefore by the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the laws passed on its basis. Any seizure of powers belonging to state authority, suspension or termination of activity of the bodies of state authority contrary to the procedure prescribed by the Constitution, as well as the formation of any new or parallel bodies of state authority shall be regarded as unconstitutional and punishable by law.

33ARTICLE 8

34All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan, regardless of their nationality, constitute the people of Uzbekistan.

35ARTICLE 9

36Major matters of public and state life shall be submitted for a nation-wide discussion and put to a direct vote of the people (a referendum). The procedure for holding referendums shall be specified by law.

37ARTICLE 10

38The Oliy Majlis (Supreme Assembly) and President of the Republic, elected by the people, shall have the exclusive right to act on behalf of the people.

39No section of society, political party, public association, movement or individual shall have the right to act on behalf of the people of Uzbekistan.

40ARTICLE 11

41The principle of the separation of power between the legislative, executive and judicial authorities shall underlie the system of state authority in the Republic of Uzbekistan.

42ARTICLE 12

43In the Republic of Uzbekistan, public life shall develop on the basis of a diversity of political institutions, ideologies and opinions.

44No ideology shall be granted the status of state ideology.

45ARTICLE 13

46Democracy in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall rest on the principles common to all mankind, according to which the ultimate value is the human being, his life, freedom, honour, dignity and other inalienable rights.

47Democratic rights and freedoms shall be protected by the Constitution and the laws.

48ARTICLE 14

49The state shall function on the principles of social justice and legality in the interests of the people and society.

50CHAPTER 3. SUPREMACY OF THE CONSTITUTION AND THE LAW

51ARTICLE 15

52The Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have absolute supremacy in the Republic of Uzbekistan.

53The state, its bodies, officials, public associations and citizens shall act in accordance with the Constitution and the laws.

54ARTICLE 16

55None of the provisions of the present Constitution shall be interpreted in a way detrimental to the rights and interests of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

56None of the laws or normative legal acts shall run counter to the norms and principles established by the Constitution.

57CHAPTER 4. FOREIGN POLICY

58ARTICLE 17

59The Republic of Uzbekistan shall have full rights in international relations. Its foreign policy shall be based on the principles of sovereign equality of the states, non-use of force or threat of its use, inviolability of frontiers, peaceful settlement of disputes, noninterference in the internal affairs of other states, and other universally recognized norms of international law.

60The Republic may form alliances, join or withdraw from unions and other inter-state organizations proceeding from the ultimate interests of the state and the people, their well-being and security.

61PART TWO. BASIC HUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTS, FREEDOMS AND DUTIES

62CHAPTER 5. GENERAL PROVISIONS

63ARTICLE 18

64All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have equal rights and freedoms, and shall be equal before the law, without discrimination by sex, race, nationality, language, religion, social origin, convictions, individual and social status.

65Any privileges may be granted solely by the law and shall conform to the principles of social justice.

66ARTICLE 19

67Both citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the state shall be bound by mutual rights and mutual responsibility. Citizens’ rights and freedoms, established by the Constitution and the laws, shall be inalienable. No one shall have the power to deny a citizen his rights and freedoms, or to infringe on them except by the sentence of a court.

68ARTICLE 20

69The exercise of rights and freedoms by a citizen shall not encroach on the lawful interests, rights and freedoms of other citizens, the state or society.

70CHAPTER 6. CITIZENSHIP

71ARTICLE 21

72In the Republic of Uzbekistan, uniform citizenship shall be established throughout its territory.

73Citizenship in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be equal for all regardless of the grounds of its acquisition.

74Every citizen of the Republic of Karakalpakstan shall be a citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

75The grounds and procedure for acquiring and forfeiting citizenship shall be defined by law.

76ARTICLE 22

77The Republic of Uzbekistan shall guarantee legal protection to all its citizens both on the territory of the republic and abroad.

78ARTICLE 23

79Foreign citizens and stateless persons, during their stay on the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan, shall be guaranteed the rights and freedoms in accordance with the norms of international law.

80They shall perform the duties established by the Constitution, laws, and international agreements signed by the Republic of Uzbekistan.

81CHAPTER 7. PERSONAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

82ARTICLE 24

83The right to exist is the inalienable right of every human being. Attempts on anyone’s life shall be regarded as the gravest crime.

84ARTICLE 25

85Everyone shall have the right to freedom and inviolability of the person.

86No one may be arrested or taken into custody except on lawful grounds.

87ARTICLE 26

88No one may be adjudged guilty of a crime except by the sentence of a court and in conformity with the law. Such a person shall be guaranteed the right to legal defence during open court proceedings.

89No one may be subject to torture, violence or any other cruel or humiliating treatment.

90No one may be subject to any medical or scientific experiments without his consent.

91ARTICLE 27

92Everyone shall be entitled to protection against encroachments on his honour, dignity, and interference in his private life, and shall be guaranteed inviolability of the home.

93No one may enter a home, carry out a search or an examination, or violate the privacy of correspondence and telephone conversations, except on lawful grounds and in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

94ARTICLE 28

95Any citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to freedom of movement on the territory of the Republic, as well as a free entry to and exit from it, except in the events specified by law.

96ARTICLE 29

97Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of thought, speech and convictions. Everyone shall have the right to seek, obtain and disseminate any information, except that which is directed against the existing constitutional system and in some other instances specified by law.

98Freedom of opinion and its expression may be restricted by law if any state or other secret is involved.

99ARTICLE 30

100All state bodies, public associations and officials in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall allow any citizen access to documents, resolutions and other materials, relating to their rights and interests.

101ARTICLE 31

102Freedom of conscience is guaranteed to all. Everyone shall have the right to profess or not to profess any religion. Any compulsory imposition of religion shall be impermissible.

103CHAPTER 8. POLITICAL RIGHTS

104ARTICLE 32

105All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to participate in the management and administration of public and state affairs, both directly and through representation. They may exercise this right by way of self-government, referendums and democratic formation of state bodies.

106ARTICLE 33

107All citizens shall have the right to engage in public life by holding rallies, meetings and demonstrations in accordance with the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The bodies of authority shall have the right to suspend or ban such undertakings exclusively on the grounds of security.

108ARTICLE 34

109All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to form trade unions, political parties and any other public associations, and to participate in mass movements.

110No one may infringe on the rights, freedoms and dignity of the individuals, constituting the minority opposition in political parties, public associations and mass movements, as well as in representative bodies of authority.

111ARTICLE 35

112Everyone shall have the right, both individually and collectively, to submit applications and proposals, and to lodge complaints with competent state bodies, institutions and public representatives.

113Such applications, proposals and complaints shall be considered in accordance with the procedure and within the time-limit specified by law.

114CHAPTER 9. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL RIGHTS

115ARTICLE 36

116Everyone shall have the right to own property.

117The privacy of bank deposits and the right to inheritance shall be guaranteed by law.

118ARTICLE 37

119Everyone shall have the right to work, including the right to choose their occupation. Every citizen shall be entitled to fair conditions of labour and protection against unemployment in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

120Any forced labour shall be prohibited, except as punishment under the sentence of a court, or in some other instances specified by law.

121ARTICLE 38

122Citizens working on hire shall be entitled to a paid rest. The number of working hours and the duration of paid leave shall be specified by law.

123ARTICLE 39

124Everyone shall have the right to social security in old age, in the event of disability and loss of the bread-winner as well as in some other cases specified by law.

125Pensions, allowances and other kinds of welfare may not be lower than the officially fixed minimum subsistence wage.

126ARTICLE 40

127Everyone shall have the right to receive skilled medical care.

128ARTICLE 41

129Everyone shall have the right to education. The state shall guarantee free secondary education. Schooling shall be under state supervision.

130ARTICLE 42

131Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of scientific research and engineering work, as well as the right to enjoy cultural benefits. The state shall promote the cultural, scientific and technical development of society.

132CHAPTER 10. GUARANTEES OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

133ARTICLE 43

134The state shall safeguard the rights and freedoms of citizens proclaimed by the Constitution and laws.

135ARTICLE 44

136Everyone shall be entitled to legally defend his rights and freedoms, and shall have the right to appeal any unlawful action of state bodies, officials and public associations.

137ARTICLE 45

138The rights of minors, the disabled, and the elderly shall be protected by the state.

139ARTICLE 46

140Women and men shall have equal rights.

141CHAPTER 11. DUTIES OF CITIZENS

142ARTICLE 47

143All citizens shall perform the duties established by the Constitution.

144ARTICLE 48

145All citizens shall be obliged to observe the Constitution and laws, and to respect the rights, freedoms, honour and dignity of others.

146ARTICLE 49

147It is the duty of every citizen to protect the historical, spiritual and cultural heritage of the people of Uzbekistan.

148Cultural monuments shall have protection by the state.

149ARTICLE 50

150All citizens shall protect the environment.

151ARTICLE 51

152All citizens shall be obliged to pay taxes and local fees established by law.

153ARTICLE 52

154Defence of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the duty of every citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Citizens will be obliged to perform military or alternative service in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

155PART THREE. SOCIETY AND THE INDIVIDUAL

156CHAPTER 12. THE ECONOMIC FOUNDATION OF SOCIETY

157ARTICLE 53

158The economy of Uzbekistan, evolving towards market relations, is based on various forms of ownership. The state shall guarantee freedom of economic activity, entrepreneurship and labour with due regard for the priority of consumers’ rights, as well as equality and legal protection of all forms of ownership.

159Private property, along with the other types of property, shall be inviolable and protected by the state. An owner may be deprived of his property solely in the cases and in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

160ARTICLE 54

161An owner shall possess, use and dispose of his property. The use of any property must not be harmful to the ecological environment, nor shall it infringe on the rights and legally protected interests of citizens, juridical entities or the state.

162ARTICLE 55

163The land, its minerals, fauna and flora, as well as other natural resources shall constitute the national wealth, and shall be rationally used and protected by the state.

164CHAPTER 13. PUBLIC ASSOCIATIONS

165ARTICLE 56

166Trade unions, political parties, and scientific societies, as well as women’s, veterans’ and youth leagues, professional associations, mass movements and other organizations registered in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law, shall have the status of public associations in the Republic of Uzbekistan.

167ARTICLE 57

168The formation and functioning of political parties and public associations aiming to do the following shall be prohibited: changing the existing constitutional system by force: coming out against the sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of the Republic, as well as the constitutional rights and freedoms of its citizens; advocating war and social, national, racial and religious hostility, and encroaching on the health and morality of the people, as well as of any armed associations and political parties based on the national or religious principles.

169All secret societies and associations shall be banned.

170ARTICLE 58

171The state shall safeguard the rights and lawful interests of public associations and provide them with equal legal possibilities for participating in public life.

172Interference by state bodies and officials in the activity of public associations, as well as interference by public associations in the activity of state bodies and officials is impermissible.

173ARTICLE 59

174Trade unions shall express and protect the socio-economic rights and interests of the working people. Membership in trade unions is optional.

175ARTICLE 60

176Political parties shall express the political will of various sections and groups of the population, and through their democratically elected representatives shall participate in the formation of state authority. Political parties shall submit public reports on their financial sources to the Oliy Majlis or their plenipotentiary body in a prescribed manner.

177ARTICLE 61

178Religious organizations and associations shall be separated from the state and equal before law. The state shall not interfere with the activity of religious associations.

179ARTICLE 62

180Public associations may be dissolved or banned, or subject to restricted activity solely by the sentence of a court.

181CHAPTER 14. FAMILY

182ARTICLE 63

183The family is the primary unit of society and shall have the right to state and societal protection.

184Marriage shall be based on the willing consent and equality of both parties.

185ARTICLE 64

186Parents shall be obliged to support and care for their children until the latter are of age.

187The state and society shall support, care for and educate orphaned children, as well as children deprived of parental guardianship, and encourage charity in their favour.

188ARTICLE 65

189All children shall be equal before the law regardless of their origin and the civic status of their parents.

190Motherhood and childhood shall be protected by the state.

191ARTICLE 66

192Able-bodied children who are of age shall be obliged to care for their parents.

193CHAPTER 15. MASS MEDIA

194ARTICLE 67

195The mass media shall be free and act in accordance with the law. It shall bear responsibility for trustworthiness of information in a prescribed manner.

196Censorship is impermissible.

197PART FOUR. ADMINISTRATIVE AND TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE AND STATE SYSTEM

198CHAPTER 16. ADMINISTRATIVE AND TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

199ARTICLE 68

200The Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of regions, districts, cities, towns, settlements, kishlaks and auls (villages) in Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan.

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