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Constitution of Zambia (1991, rev. 2009)

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3Preamble

4WE, THE PEOPLE OF ZAMBIA by our representatives, assembled in our Parliament, having solemnly resolved to maintain Zambia as a Sovereign Democratic Republic;

5DETERMINED to uphold and exercise our inherent and inviolable right as a people to decide, appoint and proclaim the means and style to govern ourselves;

6RECOGNISE the equal worth of men and women in their rights to participate, and freely determine and build a political, economic and social system of their own free choice;

7PLEDGE to ourselves that we shall ensure that the State shall respect the rights and dignity of the human family, uphold the laws of the State and conduct the affairs of the State in such manner as to preserve, develop, and utilise its resources for this and future generations;

8DECLARE the Republic a Christian nation while upholding the right of every person to enjoy that person’s freedom of conscience or religion;

9RESOLVE to uphold the values of democracy, transparency, accountability and good governance;

10AND FURTHER RESOLVE that Zambia shall forever remain a unitary, indivisible, multi-party and democratic sovereign state;

11DO HEREBY ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

12PART I. NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY AND STATE

13ARTICLE 1. DECLARATION OF REPUBLIC, SOVEREIGNTY OF PEOPLE, SUPREME LAW AND OFFICIAL LANGUAGE

141. Zambia is a unitary, indivisible, multi-party and democratic sovereign State.

152. All power resides in the people who shall exercise their sovereignty through the democratic institutions of the State in accordance with the Constitution.

163. This Constitution is the supreme law of Zambia and if any other law is inconsistent with this constitution that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.

174. This Constitution shall bind all persons in the Republic of Zambia and all Legislative, Executive and Judicial organs of the State at all levels.

185. The official language of Zambia shall be English.

19ARTICLE 2. PUBLIC SEAL

20The Public Seal of the Republic shall be such as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament.

21ARTICLE 3. NATIONAL ANTHEM, NATIONAL FLAG, NATIONAL EMBLEM AND NATIONAL MOTTO

22The National Anthem, the National Flag, the National Emblem and the National Motto shall be such as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament.

23PART II. CITIZENSHIP

24ARTICLE 4. CITIZENS OF ZAMBIA

251. Every person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was a citizen of Zambia shall continue to be a citizen of Zambia after the commencement of this Constitution.

262. A person who was entitled to citizenship of Zambia before the commencement of this Constitution subject to the performance of any conditions following the happening of a future event, shall become a citizen upon the performance of such conditions.

27ARTICLE 5. CHILDREN OF CITIZENS OF ZAMBIA

28A person born in or outside Zambia after the commencement of this Constitution shall become a citizen of Zambia at the date of his birth if on that date at least one of his parents is a citizen of Zambia.

29ARTICLE 6. PERSONS ENTITLED TO APPLY TO BE REGISTERED AS CITIZENS

301. Any person who—

31a.has attained the age of twenty-one years; or

32b.has been ordinarily resident in Zambia for a continuous period of not less than ten years immediately preceding that person’s application for registration;

33shall be entitled to apply to the Citizenship Board, in such manner as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament, to be registered as a citizen of Zambia.

342. An application for registration as a citizen under this Article shall not be made by or on behalf of any person who, under any law in force in Zambia, is adjudged or otherwise declared to be of unsound mind.

353. Parliament may provide that any period during which a person has the right to reside in Zambia by virtue of a permit issued under the authority of any law relating to immigration shall not be taken into account in computing the period of ten years referred to in paragraph (b) of clause (1).

36ARTICLE 7. POWERS OF PARLIAMENT

37Parliament may make provision for—

38a.the acquisition of citizenship of Zambia by persons who are not eligible to become citizens of Zambia under this Part;

39b.depriving any person of his citizenship of Zambia:

40Provided that a person shall not be deprived of their citizenship except on the grounds that—

41i.that person is a citizen of a country other than Zambia; or

42ii.that person obtained such citizenship by fraud.

43ARTICLE 8. CITIZENSHIP BOARD

44Parliament may make provision for the establishment of a Citizenship Board to deal with any of the matters falling under the provisions of Articles 6 or 7.

45ARTICLE 9. CESSER OF CITIZENSHIP

461. A person shall cease to be a citizen of Zambia if that person—

47a.acquires the citizenship of a country other than Zambia by a voluntary act, other than marriage; or

48b.does any act indicating that person’s intention to adopt or make use of any other citizenship.

492. A person who—

50a.becomes a citizen of Zambia by registration; and

51b.immediately after becoming a citizen of Zambia, is also a citizen of some other country;

52shall, subject to clause (4), cease to be a citizen of Zambia at the expiration of three months after such person becomes a citizen of Zambia unless such person has renounced the citizenship of that other country, taken the oath of allegiance and made and registered such declaration of their intention concerning residence as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament.

533. For the purpose of this Article, where, under the law of a country other than Zambia, a person cannot renounce his citizenship of that other country that person need not make such renunciation but may instead be required to make such declaration concerning that citizenship as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament.

544. Provision may be made by or under an Act of Parliament for extending the period within which any person may make a renunciation of citizenship, take oath or make or register a declaration for the purpose of this Article, and if such provision is made that person shall cease to be a citizen of Zambia only if at the expiration of the extended period that person has not then made the renunciation, taken the oath or made or registered the declaration, as the case may be.

55ARTICLE 10. INTERPRETATION

561. For the purpose of this Part, a person born aboard a registered ship or aircraft, or aboard an unregistered ship or aircraft of the Government of any country, shall be deemed to have been born in the place in which the ship or aircraft was registered or in that country, as the case may be.

572. Any reference in this Part to the national status of the parent of a person at the time of the birth of that person shall, in relation to a person born after the death of his parent, be construed as a reference to the national status of the parent at the time of the parent’s death.

583. For the avoidance of doubt, it is hereby declared that a person born in Zambia before the 1st of April, 1986, whose father was an established resident shall continue to enjoy the rights and privileges, under, and shall remain subject to, the law prevailing immediately before that date.

59PART III. PROTECTION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS OF THE INDIVIDUAL

60ARTICLE 11. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

61It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part, to each and all of the following, namely:

62a.life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;

63b.freedom of conscience, expression, assembly, movement and association;

64c.protection of young persons from exploitation;

65d.protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation;

66and the provisions of this Part shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject to such limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.

67ARTICLE 12. PROTECTION OF RIGHT TO LIFE

681. No person shall be deprived of his life intentionally except in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence under the law in force in Zambia of which he has been convicted.

692. No person shall deprive an unborn child of life by termination of pregnancy except in accordance with the conditions laid down by an Act of Parliament for that purpose.

703. Without prejudice to any liability for a contravention of any other law with respect to the use of force in such cases; as are hereinafter mentioned, a person shall not be regarded as having been deprived of his life in contravention of this Article if he dies as a result of the use of force to such extent as is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of the case—

71a.for the defence of any person from violence or for the defence of property;

72b.in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained;

73c.for the purpose of suppressing a riot, insurrection, mutiny or if he dies as a result of a lawful act of war;

74d.in order to prevent the commission by that person of a criminal offence.

75ARTICLE 13. PROTECTION OF RIGHT TO PERSONAL LIBERTY

761. No person shall be deprived of his personal liberty except as may be authorised by law in any of the following cases:

77a.in execution of a sentence or order of a court, whether established for Zambia or some other country, in respect of a criminal offence or which he has been convicted;

78b.in execution of an order of a court of record punishing him for contempt of that court or of a court inferior to it;

79c.in execution of an order of a court made to secure the fulfilment of any obligation imposed on him by law;

80d.for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of an order of a court;

81c.upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence under the law in force in Zambia;

82f.under an order of a court or with the consent of his parent or guardian, for his education or welfare during any period ending not later than the date when he attains the age of eighteen years;

83g.for the purpose of preventing the spread of an infectious or contagious disease;

84h.in the case of a person who is, or is reasonably suspected to be, of unsound mind, addicted to drugs or alcohol, or a vagrant, for the purpose of this care or treatment or the protection of the community;

85i.for the purpose of preventing the unlawful entry of that person into Zambia, or for the purpose of effecting the expulsion, extradition or other lawful removal of that person from Zambia or for the purpose of restricting that person while he is being conveyed through Zambia in the course of his extradition or removal as a convicted prisoner from one country to another; or

86j.to such extent as may be necessary in the execution of a lawful order requiring that person to remain within a specified area within Zambia or prohibiting him from being within such area, or to such extent as may be reasonably justifiable for the taking of proceedings against that person relating to the making of any such order, or to such extent as may be reasonably justifiable for restraining that person during any visit that he is permitted to make to any part of Zambia in which, in consequence of any such order, his presence would otherwise be unlawful.

872. Any person who is arrested or detained shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands, of the reasons for his arrest or detention.

883. Any person who is arrested or detained—

89a.for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of an order of a court; or

90b.upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or being about to commit, a criminal offence under the law in force in Zambia;

91and who is not released, shall be brought without undue delay before a court; and if any person arrested or detained under paragraph (b) is not tried within a reasonable time, then, without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against him, he shall be released either unconditionally or upon reasonable conditions, including in particular such conditions as are reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears at a later date for trial or for proceedings preliminary to trial.

924. Any person who is unlawfully arrested or detained by any other person shall be entitled to compensation therefor from that other person.

93ARTICLE 14. PROTECTION FROM SLAVERY AND FORCED LABOUR

941. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.

952. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.

963. For the purpose of this Article, the expression “forced labour” does not include—

97a.any labour required in consequence of a sentence or order of a court;

98b.labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of a sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;

99c.any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;

100d.any labour required during any period when the Republic is at war or a declaration under Article 30 or 31 is in force or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period, or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or

101e.any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligation.

102ARTICLE 15. PROTECTION FROM INHUMAN TREATMENT

103No person shall be subjected to torture, or to inhuman or degrading punishment or other like treatment.

104ARTICLE 16. PROTECTION FROM DEPRIVATION OF PROPERTY

1051. Except as provided in this Article, no property of any description shall be compulsorily taken possession of, and no interest in or right over property of any description shall be compulsorily acquired, unless by or under the authority of an Act of Parliament which provides for payment of adequate compensation for the property or interest or right to be taken possession of or acquired.

1062. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of clause (1) to the extent that it is shown that such law provides for the taking possession or acquisition of any property or interest therein or right thereover—

107a.in satisfaction of any tax, rate or due;

108b.by way of penalty for breach of any law, whether under civil process or after conviction of an offence;

109c.in execution of judgements or orders of courts;

110d.upon the attempted removal of the property in question out of or into Zambia in contravention of any law;

111e.as an incident of a contract including a lease, tenancy, mortgage, charge, pledge or bill of sale or of a title deed to land;

112f.for the purpose of its administration, care or custody on behalf of and for the benefit of the person entitled to the beneficial interest therein;

113g.by way of the vesting of enemy property or for the purpose of the administration of such property;

114h.for the purpose of—

115i.the administration of the property of a deceased person, a person of unsound mind or a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years, for the benefit of the persons entitled to the beneficial interest therein;

116ii.the administration of the property of a person adjudged bankrupt or a body corporate in liquidation, for the benefit of the creditors of such bankrupt or body corporate and, subject thereto, for the benefit of other persons entitled to the beneficial interest in the property;

117iii.the administration of the property of a person who has entered into a deed of arrangement for the benefit of his creditors; or

118iv.vesting any property subject to a trust in persons appointed as trustees under the instrument creating the trust or by a court or, by order of a court, for the purpose of giving effect to the trust;

119i.in consequence of any law relating to the limitation of actions;

120j.in terms of any law relating to abandoned, unoccupied, unutilised or undeveloped land, as defined in such law;

121k.in terms of any law relating to absent or non-resident owners, as defined in such law, of any property;

122l.in terms of any law relating to trusts or settlements;

123m.by reason of the property in question being in a dangerous state or prejudicial to the health or safety of human beings, animals or plants;

124n.as a condition in connection with the granting of permission for the utilisation of that or other property in any particular manner;

125o.for the purpose of or in connection with the prospecting for or exploitation of, minerals belonging to the Republic on terms which provide for the respective interests of the persons affected;

126p.in pursuance of a provision of the marketing of property of that description in the common interests of the various persons otherwise entitled to dispose of that property;

127q.by way of the taking of a sample for the purposes of any law;

128r.by way of acquisition of the shares, or a class of shares, in a body corporate on terms agreed to by the holders of not less than nine-tenths in value of those shares or that class of shares;

129s.where the property consists of an animal, upon its being found trespassing or straying;

130t.for so long as may be necessary for the purpose of any examination, investigation, trial or inquiry or, in the case of the land, the carrying out thereon—

131i.of work for the purpose of the conservation of natural resources or any description; or

132ii.of agricultural development or improvement which the owner or occupier of the land has been required, and has without reasonable and lawful excuse refused or failed, to carry out;

133u.where the property consists of any licence or permit;

134v.where the property consists of wild animals existing in their natural habitat or the carcasses of wild animals;

135w.where the property is held by a body corporate established by law for public purposes and in which no moneys have been invested other than moneys provided by Parliament;

136x.where the property is any mineral, mineral oil or natural gases or any rights accruing by virtue of any title or licence for the purpose of searching for or mining any mineral, mineral oil or natural gases—

137i.upon failure to comply with any provision of such law relating to the title or licence or to the exercise of the rights accruing or to the development or exploitation of any mineral, mineral oil or natural gases; or

138ii.in terms of any law vesting any such property or rights in the President;

139y.for the purpose of the administration or disposition of such property or interest or right by the President in implementation of a comprehensive land policy or of a policy designed to ensure that the statute law, the Common Law and the doctrines of equity relating to or affecting the interest in or rights over land, or any other interests or right enjoyed by Chiefs and persons claiming through and under them, shall apply with substantial uniformity throughout Zambia;

140z.in terms of any law providing for the conversion of titles to land from freehold to leasehold and the imposition of any restriction on subdivision, assignment or sub-letting;

141aa.in terms of any law relating to—

142i.the forfeiture or confiscation of the property of a person who has left Zambia for the purpose or apparent purpose, of defeating the ends of justice;

143ii.the imposition of a fine on, and the forfeiture or confiscation of the property of, a person who admits a contravention of any law relating to the imposition or collection of any duty or tax or to the prohibition or control of dealing or transactions in gold, currencies, or securities.

1443. An Act of Parliament such as is referred to in clause (1) shall provide that in default of agreement, the amount of compensation shall be determined by a court of competent jurisdiction.

145ARTICLE 17. PROTECTION FOR PRIVACY OF HOME AND OTHER PROPERTY

1461. Except with his own consent, no person shall be subjected to the search of his person or his property or the entry by others on his premises.

1472. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that it is shown that the law in question makes provision—

148a.that is reasonably required in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town and country planning, the development and utilisation of mineral resources, or in order to secure the development or utilisation of any property for a purpose beneficial to the community;

149b.that is reasonably required for the purpose of protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons;

150c.that authorises an officer or agent of the Government, a local government authority or a body corporate established by law for a public purpose to enter on the premises or anything thereon for the purpose of any tax, rate or due or in order to carry out work connected with any property that is lawfully on those premises and that belongs to that Government, authority, or body corporate, as the case may be; or

151d.that authorises, for the purpose of enforcing the judgement or order of a court in any civil proceedings, the search of any person or property by order of a court or entry upon any premises by such order;

152and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, anything done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justified in a democratic society.

153ARTICLE 18. PROVISIONS TO SECURE PROTECTION OF LAW

1541. If any person is charged with a criminal offence, then, unless the charge is withdrawn, the case shall be afforded a fair hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial court established by law.

1552. Every person who is charged with a criminal offence—

156a.shall be presumed to be innocent until he is proved or has pleaded guilty;

157b.shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands and in detail, of the nature of the offence charged;

158c.shall be given adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;

159d.shall unless legal aid is granted him in accordance with the law enacted by Parliament for such purpose be permitted to defend himself before the court in person, or at his own expense, by a legal representative of his own choice;

160e.shall be afforded facilities to examine in person or by his legal representative the witnesses called by the prosecution before the court, and to obtain the attendance and carry out the examination of witnesses to testify on his behalf before the court on the same conditions as those applying to witnesses called by the prosecution; and

161f.shall be permitted to have without payment the assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand the language used at the trial of the charge;

162and except with his own consent the trial shall not take place in his absence unless he so conducts himself as to render the continuance of the proceedings in his presence impracticable and the court has ordered him to be removed and the trial to proceed in his absence.

1633. When a person is tried for any criminal offence, the accused person or any person authorized by him in that behalf shall, if he so requires and subject to payment of such reasonable fee as may be prescribed by law, be given within a reasonable time after judgment a copy for the use of the accused person of any record of the proceedings made by or on behalf of the court.

1644. No person shall be held to be guilty of a criminal offence on account of any act or omission that did not, at the time it took place, constitute such an offence, and no penalty shall be imposed for any criminal offence that is severer in degree or description that the maximum penalty that might have been imposed for that offence at the time it was committed.

1655. No person who shows that he has been tried by a competent court for a criminal offence and either convicted or acquitted shall again be tried for that offence or for any other criminal offence of which he could have been convicted at the trial for that offence, except upon the order of a superior court in the course of appeal or review proceedings relating to the conviction or acquittal.

1666. No person shall be tried for a criminal offence if he shows that he has been pardoned for that offence.

1677. No person who is tried for a criminal offence shall be compelled to give evidence at the trial.

1688. No person shall be convicted of a criminal offence unless that offence is defined and the penalty is prescribed in a written law:

169Provided that nothing in this clause shall prevent a court of record from punishing any person for contempt of itself notwithstanding that the act or omission constituting the contempt is not defined in written law and the penalty therefore is not so prescribed.

1709. Any court or other adjudicating authority prescribed by law for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation shall be established by law and shall be independent and impartial; and where proceedings for such a determination are instituted by any person before such a court or other adjudicating authority, the case shall be given a fair hearing within a reasonable time.

17110. Except with the agreement of all the parties thereto, all proceedings of every court and proceedings for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation before any other adjudicating authority, including the announcement of the decision of the court or other authority, shall be held in public.

17211. Nothing in clause (10) shall prevent the court or other adjudicating authority from excluding from the proceedings persons other than the parties thereto and their legal representatives to such extent as the court or other authority—

173a.may consider necessary or expedient in circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interest of justice or in interlocutory proceedings; or

174b.may be empowered by law to do in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, the welfare of persons under the age of eighteen years or the protection of the private lives of persons concerned in the proceedings.

17512. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of—

176a.paragraph (a) of clause (2) to the extent that it is shown that the law in question imposes upon any person charged with a criminal offence the burden of proving particular facts;

177b.paragraph (d) of clause (2) to the extent that it is shown that the law in question prohibits legal representation before a subordinate court in proceedings for an offence under Zambian customary law, being proceedings against any person who, under that law, is subject to that law;

178c.paragraph (c) of clause (2) to the extent that it is shown that the law in question imposes reasonable conditions that must be satisfied if witnesses called to testify on behalf of an accused person are to be paid their expenses out of public funds;

179d.clause (2) to the extent that it is shown that the law provides that—

180i.where the trial of any person for any offence prescribed by or under the law has been adjourned and the accused, having pleaded to the charge, fails to appear at the time fixed by the court for the resumption of his trial after the adjournment, the proceedings may continue notwithstanding the absence of the accused if the court, being satisfied that, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, it is just and reasonable so to do, so orders; and

181ii.the court shall set aside any conviction or sentence pronounced in the absence of the accused in respect of that offence if the accused satisfies the court without undue delay that the cause of his absence was reasonable and that he had a valid defence to the charge;

182e.clause (2) to the extent that it is shown that the law provides that a trial of a body corporate may take place in the absence of any representative of the body corporate upon a charge in respect of which a plea of not guilty has been entered by the court;

183f.clause (5) to the extent that it is shown that the law in question authorises a court to try a member of a disciplined force for a criminal offence notwithstanding any trial and conviction or acquittal of that member under the disciplinary law of that force, so, however, that any court so trying such a member and convicting him shall in sentencing him to any punishment take into account any punishment awarded him under that disciplinary law.

18413. In the case of any person who is held in lawful detention, clause (1), paragraphs (d) and (e) of clause (2) and clause (3) shall not apply in relation to his trial for a criminal offence under the law regulating the discipline of persons held in detention.

18514. In its application to a body corporate clause (2) shall have effect as if the words “in person or” were omitted from paragraph (d) and (e).

18615. In this Article “criminal offence” means a criminal offence under the law in force in Zambia.

187ARTICLE 19. PROTECTION OF FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE

1881. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of conscience, and for the purposes of this Article the said freedom includes freedom of thought and religion, freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others, and both in public and in private, to manifest and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance.

1892. Except with his own consent, or, if he is a minor, the consent of his guardian, no person attending any place of education shall be required to receive religious instruction or to take part in or attend any religious ceremony or observance if that instruction, ceremony or observance relates to a religion other than his own.

1903. No religious community or denomination shall be prevented from providing religious instruction for persons of that community or denomination in the course of any education provided by the community or denomination or from establishing and maintaining institutions to provide social services for such persons.

1914. No person shall be compelled to take any oath which is contrary to his religion or belief or to take any oath in a manner which is contrary to his religion or belief.

1925. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that it is shown that the law in question makes provision which is reasonably required—

193a.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or

194b.for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons, including the right to observe and practice any religion without the unsolicited intervention of members of any other religion:

195and except so far as that provision or, the thing done under the authority thereof as the case may be, is shown not to be reasonably justified in a democratic society.

196ARTICLE 20. PROTECTION OF FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION

1971. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, that is to say, freedom to hold opinions without interference, freedom to receive ideas and information without interference, freedom to impart and communicate ideas and information without interference, whether the communication be to the public generally or to any person or class of persons, and freedom from interference with his correspondence.

1982. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution no law shall make any provision that derogates from freedom of the press.

1993. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that it is shown that the law in question makes provision—

200a.that is reasonably required in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or

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