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7Qatar is an independent sovereign Arab State. Its religion is Islam and Shari'a law shall be a main source of its legislations. Its political system is democratic. The Arabic Language shall be its official language. The people of Qatar are a part of the Arab nation.
9The capital of the State is Doha City; and it may be transferred to any other place by a law. The State shall exercise its sovereignty on its territory and it may not relinquish its sovereignty neither may it cede any part of its territory.
19The foreign policy of the State is based on the principle of strengthening international peace and security by means of encouraging peaceful resolution of international disputes; and shall support the right of peoples to self-determination; and shall not interfere in the domestic affairs of states; and shall cooperate with peace-loving nations.
21The rule of the State is hereditary in the family of Al Thani and in the line of the male descendants of Hamad Bin Khalifa Bin Hamad Bin Abdullah Bin Jassim. The rule shall be inherited by the son named as Heir Apparent by the Emir. In the case that there is no such son, the prerogatives of rule shall pass to the member of the family named by the Emir as Heir Apparent. In this case, his male descendants shall inherit the rule. The provisions of the rule of the State and accession shall be determined by a special law that shall be issued within a year commencing as from the date of coming into force of this Constitution. This law shall have the power of the Constitution.
23The Emir shall, by an Emiri Order, appoint an Heir Apparent after consultation with the members of the Ruling Family and the people of wisdom (Ahal Alhal wal agd) in the State. The Heir Apparent must be a Muslim of a Qatari Muslim Mother.
26( I swear by Almighty God to respect Sharia law, the Constitution and the law, maintain the independence of the State and safeguard its territorial integrity, defend the freedom and interests of its people, and be loyal to the State and the Emir).
30The Emir may, by an Emiri Order, confer upon the Heir Apparent the exercise of some of his powers and the discharge of some of his functions. The Heir Apparent shall preside over the sessions of the Council of Ministers whenever he is in attendance.
32Without prejudice to the provisions of the two preceding articles, and where it is not possible to delegate powers to the Heir Apparent, the Emir may, by an Emiri Order, designate a deputy from the Ruling Family to discharge some of his powers and functions; and where the person who has been so designated holds a post or performs a function in any institution, the same person shall cease to discharge the duties of that post or function during his deputation of the Emir; and the Deputy Emir shall, as soon as he is so designated, take, before the Emir, the same oath as taken by the Heir Apparent.
34There shall be established a Council by an Emiri Resolution named "The Council of the Ruling Family". The Emir shall appoint the Members of such Council from amongst the members of the Ruling Family.
36The Council of the Ruling Family shall determine the vacancy of the position of the Emir in the event of his demise or when he becomes totally incapacitated to discharge his functions. Following this, the Council of Ministers and Al-Shoura Council shall after a secret joint session announce the vacancy and declare the Heir Apparent as the Emir of the State.
38Where the Heir Apparent, at the time he is named Emir of the State, is less than 18 years of age according to the Gregorian calendar, the reins of Government shall be conferred upon a Regency Council to be appointed by the Council of the Ruling Family. The Regency Council shall be composed of a Chairman and not less than three or more than five Members; and the Chairman and the majority of Members shall be from amongst the Ruling Family.
50The family is the basis of the society. A Qatari family is founded on religion, ethics, and patriotism. The law shall regulate adequate means to protect the family, support its structure, strengthen its ties, and protect maternity, childhood, and old age.
52The State shall provide care for the young, and protect the same from corruption, exploitation, evils of physical, mental and spiritual neglect. The State shall also create conducive circumstances for developing their capabilities in all fields based on sound education.
62Private property is inviolable; and no one shall be deprived of his property save by reason of public benefit and in the cases prescribed by the law and in the manner stated therein provided that the person concerned is fairly compensated.
64The State shall guarantee freedom of economic enterprise on the basis of social justice and balanced cooperation between private and public activity in order to achieve socio-economic development, increase in production, achieve public welfare, raise standard of living, and provide job opportunities in accordance with the provisions of the law.
82Personal freedom shall be guaranteed and no person may be arrested, detained, searched, neither may his freedom of residence and mobility be restricted save under the provisions of the law; and no person may be subjected to torture, or any degrading treatment; and torture shall be considered a crime punishable by law.
84The sanctity of human privacy shall be inviolable, and therefore interference into privacy of a person, family affairs, home of residence, correspondence, or any other act of interference that may demean or defame a person may not be allowed save as limited by the provisions of the law stipulated therein.
90No crime and no punishment save as prescribed by the law and no penalty save on the acts committed subsequent to the enforcement of that law; and punishment is personal. The provisions of the laws shall have no effect save on the acts committed from the date of the enforcement of the said laws. These provisions shall have no effect on the acts which occurred prior to the enforcement of the said laws; however, it may be stipulated otherwise by a majority of two- thirds of Al-Shoura Council in case of non-criminal provisions.
124The respect of the Constitution, compliance with the laws issued by Public Authority, abiding by public order and morality, observing national traditions and established customs is a duty of all who reside in the State of Qatar or enter its territory.
144The Emir is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. He shall supervise the same with the assistance of Defence Council under his direct authority. The said Council shall be constituted by an Emiri Resolution, which will also determine the functions thereof.
160The Emir shall conclude treaties and agreements by a decree and refer them to Al-Shoura Council accompanied with appropriate explanatory notes. The treaty or agreement shall have the power of law after ratification and publication in the official Gazette; however, reconciliation treaties and treaties pertaining to the territory of the State or those relating to the right of sovereignty or public or private rights of the citizens, or those that involve an amendment of the laws of the State shall come into force when the same are issued as a law. Under no case may a treaty include secret conditions contradicting its publicized conditions.
162The Emir may, be a decree, declare Martial Laws in the country in the event of exceptional cases specified by the law; and in such cases, he may take all urgent necessary measures to counter any threat that undermine the safety of the State, the integrity of its territories or the security of its people and interests or obstruct the organs of the State from performing their duties. However, the decree must specify the nature of such exceptional cases for which the martial laws have been declared and clarify the measures taken to address this situation. Al-Shoura Council shall be notified of this decree within the fifteen days following its issue; and in the event that the Council is not in session for any reason whatsoever, the Council shall be notified of the decree at its first convening. Martial laws shall be declared for a limited period and the same shall not be extended unless approved by Al-Shoura Council.
164The Emir may, in the event of exceptional cases that require measures of utmost urgency which necessitate the issue of special laws and in case that Al-Shoura Council is not in session, issue pertinent decrees that have the power of law. Such decree-laws shall be submitted to Al-Shoura Council at its first meeting; and the Council may within a maximum period of forty days from the date of submission and with a two-thirds majority of its Members reject any of these decree-laws or request amendment thereof to be effected within a specified period of time; such decree-laws shall cease to have the power
169The Emir shall appoint the Prime Minister, accept his resignation and remove him from office by an Emiri order; and the resignation of the Prime Minister or his removal from office shall entail all Ministers. In the event of acceptance or resignation or removal from the office, the same Council shall continue to run urgent matters until such time the new Council is appointed.
171The Emir shall appoint Ministers by an Emiri Order upon nomination by the Prime Minister; and he shall accept resignations of Ministers and relieve them from office in a like manner. Where a resignation of a minister has been accepted, the Minister may be entrusted with running urgent matters until his successor is appointed.
175(I swear by Almighty God to respect Sharia law, the Constitution and the law, protect the independence of the State, safeguard its territorial integrity, and defend the freedom and interests of its people).
177The Emir shall seek public opinion on important issues pertaining to the interests of the State in a referendum. The subject of such referendum shall be deemed acceptable if acknowledged by the majority of voters; and the results of the referendum shall be binding and effective from the date of its announcement. The results shall be published in the official Gazette.
180Al-Shoura Council shall assume the legislative authority, approve the general policy of the Government, the budget, and it shall exercise control over the executive authority as specified in this Constitution.
182Al-Shoura Council shall consist of forty-five Members thirty of whom shall be elected by direct, general secret ballot; and the Emir shall appoint the remaining fifteen Members from amongst the Ministers or any other persons. The term of service of the appointed Members in Al-Shoura Council shall expire when these Members resign their seats or are relieved from their posts.
195The term of Al-Shoura Council shall be four calendar years commencing from the date of the first meeting; and the elections of the new Council shall be conducted during the last ninety days of the aforementioned term. The Member whose term of service expires may be re-elected; and where the elections are not held at the expiry of the term of the Council or delayed for any reason whatsoever, the term of the Council shall remain intact until a new Council is elected. The legislative term shall not be extended save for necessity and by decree provided that the said extension shall not exceed the period of one legislative term.
199Where for any reason a seat of one of the elected Members of Al-Shoura Council falls vacant at least six months before the term of the Council expires, a successor shall be elected within two months from the date of notification of such vacancy. Where, on the other hand, a seat of an appointed Member falls vacant, a new Member shall be appointed to fill the vacancy. In both cases, the new Member shall complete the term of his predecessor.