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Table of Contents

  1. CONSTITUTION ACT 1867
  2. I. PRELIMINARY
  3. II. UNION
  4. III. EXECUTIVE POWER
  5. IV. LEGISLATIVE POWER
  6. Part 1. THE SENATE
  7. Part 2. THE HOUSE OF COMMONS
  8. Part 3. MONEY VOTES; ROYAL ASSENT
  9. V. PROVINCIAL CONSTITUTIONS
  10. Part 1. EXECUTIVE POWER
  11. Part 2. LEGISLATIVE POWER
  12. A. Ontario
  13. B. Quebec
  14. C. Ontario and Quebec
  15. D. Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
  16. E. Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia
  17. F. The Four Provinces
  18. VI. DISTRIBUTION OF LEGISLATIVE POWERS
  19. Part 1. POWERS OF THE PARLIAMENT
  20. Part 2. EXCLUSIVE POWERS OF PROVINCIAL LEGISLATURES
  21. Part 3. NON-RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES, FORESTRY RESOURCES AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY
  22. Part 4. EDUCATION
  23. Part 5. UNIFORMITY OF LAWS IN ONTARIO, NOVA SCOTIA, AND NEW BRUNSWICK
  24. Part 6. OLD AGE PENSIONS
  25. Part 7. AGRICULTURE AND IMMIGRATION
  26. VII. JUDICATURE
  27. VIII. REVENUES; DEBTS; ASSETS; TAXATION
  28. IX. MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
  29. Part 1. GENERAL
  30. Part 2. ONTARIO AND QUEBEC
  31. X. INTERCOLONIAL RAILWAY
  32. XI. ADMISSION OF OTHER COLONIES
  33. THE FIRST SCHEDULE. ELECTORAL DISTRICTS OF ONTARIO
  34. A. EXISTING ELECTORAL DIVISIONS
  35. Part 1. Counties
  36. Part 2. Ridings of Counties
  37. Part 3. Cities, Parts of Cities, and Towns
  38. B. NEW ELECTORAL DIVISIONS
  39. THE SECOND SCHEDULE. ELECTORAL DISTRICTS OF QUEBEC SPECIALLY FIXED
  40. THE THIRD SCHEDULE. PROVINCIAL PUBLIC WORKS AND PROPERTY TO BE THE PROPERTY OF CANADA
  41. THE FOURTH SCHEDULE. ASSETS TO BE THE PROPERTY OF ONTARIO AND QUEBEC CONJOINTLY
  42. THE FIFTH SCHEDULE
  43. Part 1. OATH OF ALLEGIANCE
  44. Part 2. DECLARATION OF QUALIFICATION
  45. THE SIXTH SCHEDULE. PRIMARY PRODUCTION FROM NON-RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES AND FORESTRY RESOURCES
  46. CONSTITUTION ACT 1982
  47. PART I. CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
  48. A. GUARANTEE OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
  49. B. FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS
  50. C. DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS
  51. D. MOBILITY RIGHTS
  52. E. LEGAL RIGHTS
  53. F. EQUALITY RIGHTS
  54. G. OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF CANADA
  55. H. MINORITY LANGUAGE EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS
  56. I. ENFORCEMENT
  57. J. GENERAL
  58. K. APPLICATION OF CHARTER
  59. L. CITATION
  60. PART II. RIGHTS OF THE ABORIGINAL PEOPLES OF CANADA
  61. PART III. EQUALIZATION AND REGIONAL DISPARITIES
  62. PART IV. CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCE
  63. PART IV.I. CONSTITUTIONAL CONFERENCES
  64. PART V. PROCEDURE FOR AMENDING CONSTITUTION OF CANADA
  65. PART VI. AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION ACT, 1867
  66. PART VII. GENERAL
  67. SCHEDULE TO THE CONSTITUTION ACT 1982. MODERNIZATION OF THE CONSTITUTION

Constitution of Canada (1867, rev. 2011)

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3CONSTITUTION ACT 1867

4An Act for the Union of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, and the Government thereof; and for Purposes connected therewith

5(29th March 1867)

6WHEREAS the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick have expressed their Desire to be federally united into One Dominion under the Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with a Constitution similar in Principle to that of the United Kingdom:

7And whereas such a Union would conduce to the Welfare of the Provinces and promote the Interests of the British Empire:

8And whereas on the Establishment of the Union by Authority of Parliament it is expedient, not only that the Constitution of the Legislative Authority in the Dominion be provided for, but also that the Nature of the Executive Government therein be declared:

9And whereas it is expedient that Provision be made for the eventual Admission into the Union of other Parts of British North America:

10I. PRELIMINARY

111. Short title

12This Act may be cited as the Constitution Act, 1867.

132. Repealed

14II. UNION

153. Declaration of Union

16It shall be lawful for the Queen, by and with the Advice of Her Majesty’s Most Honourable Privy Council, to declare by Proclamation that, on and after a Day therein appointed, not being more than Six Months after the passing of this Act, the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick shall form and be One Dominion under the Name of Canada; and on and after that Day those Three Provinces shall form and be One Dominion under that Name accordingly.

174. Construction of subsequent Provisions of Act

18Unless it is otherwise expressed or implied, the Name Canada shall be taken to mean Canada as constituted under this Act.

195. Four Provinces

20Canada shall be divided into Four Provinces, named Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.

216. Provinces of Ontario and Quebec

22The Parts of the Province of Canada (as it exists at the passing of this Act) which formerly constituted respectively the Provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada shall be deemed to be severed, and shall form Two separate Provinces. The Part which formerly constituted the Province of Upper Canada shall constitute the Province of Ontario; and the Part which formerly constituted the Province of Lower Canada shall constitute the Province of Quebec.

237. Provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick

24The Provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick shall have the same Limits as at the passing of this Act.

258. Decennial Census

26In the general Census of the Population of Canada which is hereby required to be taken in the Year One thousand eight hundred and seventy-one, and in every Tenth Year thereafter, the respective Populations of the Four Provinces shall be distinguished.

27III. EXECUTIVE POWER

289. Declaration of Executive Power in the Queen

29The Executive Government and Authority of and over Canada is hereby declared to continue and be vested in the Queen.

3010. Application of Provisions referring to Governor General

31The Provisions of this Act referring to the Governor General extend and apply to the Governor General for the Time being of Canada, or other the Chief Executive Officer or Administrator for the Time being carrying on the Government of Canada on behalf and in the Name of the Queen, by whatever Title he is designated.

3211. Constitution of Privy Council for Canada

33There shall be a Council to aid and advise in the Government of Canada, to be styled the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada; and the Persons who are to be Members of that Council shall be from Time to Time chosen and summoned by the Governor General and sworn in as Privy Councillors, and Members thereof may be from Time to Time removed by the Governor General.

3412. All Powers under Acts to be exercised by Governor General with Advice of Privy Council, or alone

35All Powers, Authorities, and Functions which under any Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, or of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, or of the Legislature of Upper Canada, Lower Canada, Canada, Nova Scotia, or New Brunswick, are at the Union vested in or exerciseable by the respective Governors or Lieutenant Governors of those Provinces, with the Advice, or with the Advice and Consent, of the respective Executive Councils thereof, or in conjunction with those Councils, or with any Number of Members thereof, or by those Governors or Lieutenant Governors individually, shall, as far as the same continue in existence and capable of being exercised after the Union in relation to the Government of Canada, be vested in and exerciseable by the Governor General, with the Advice or with the Advice and Consent of or in conjunction with the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada, or any Members thereof, or by the Governor General individually, as the Case requires, subject nevertheless (except with respect to such as exist under Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain or of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) to be abolished or altered by the Parliament of Canada.

3613. Application of Provisions referring to Governor General in Council

37The Provisions of this Act referring to the Governor General in Council shall be construed as referring to the Governor General acting by and with the Advice of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada.

3814. Power to Her Majesty to authorize Governor General to appoint Deputies

39It shall be lawful for the Queen, if Her Majesty thinks fit, to authorize the Governor General from Time to Time to appoint any Person or any Persons jointly or severally to be his Deputy or Deputies within any Part or Parts of Canada, and in that Capacity to exercise during the Pleasure of the Governor General such of the Powers, Authorities, and Functions of the Governor General as the Governor General deems it necessary or expedient to assign to him or them, subject to any Limitations or Directions expressed or given by the Queen; but the Appointment of such a Deputy or Deputies shall not affect the Exercise by the Governor General himself of any Power, Authority, or Function.

4015. Command of Armed Forces to continue to be vested in the Queen

41The Command-in-Chief of the Land and Naval Militia, and of all Naval and Military Forces, of and in Canada, is hereby declared to continue and be vested in the Queen.

4216. Seat of Government of Canada

43Until the Queen otherwise directs, the Seat of Government of Canada shall be Ottawa.

44IV. LEGISLATIVE POWER

4517. Constitution of Parliament of Canada

46There shall be One Parliament for Canada, consisting of the Queen, an Upper House styled the Senate, and the House of Commons.

4718. Privileges, etc., of Houses

48The privileges, immunities, and powers to be held, enjoyed, and exercised by the Senate and by the House of Commons, and by the members thereof respectively, shall be such as are from time to time defined by Act of the Parliament of Canada, but so that any Act of the Parliament of Canada defining such privileges, immunities, and powers shall not confer any privileges, immunities, or powers exceeding those at the passing of such Act held, enjoyed, and exercised by the Commons House of Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and by the members thereof.

4919. First Session of the Parliament of Canada

50The Parliament of Canada shall be called together not later than Six Months after the Union.

5120. Repealed

52Part 1. THE SENATE

5321. Number of Senators

54The Senate shall, subject to the Provisions of this Act, consist of One Hundred and five Members, who shall be styled Senators.

5522. Representation of Provinces in Senate

56In relation to the Constitution of the Senate Canada shall be deemed to consist of Four Divisions:

57 1.Ontario;

58 2.Quebec;

59 3.The Maritime Provinces, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island;

60 4.The Western Provinces of Manitoba, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Alberta;

61which Four Divisions shall (subject to the Provisions of this Act) be equally represented in the Senate as follows: Ontario by twenty-four senators; Quebec by twenty- four senators; the Maritime Provinces and Prince Edward Island by twenty-four senators, ten thereof representing Nova Scotia, ten thereof representing New Brunswick, and four thereof representing Prince Edward Island; the Western Provinces by twenty-four senators, six thereof representing Manitoba, six thereof representing British Columbia, six thereof representing Saskatchewan, and six thereof representing Alberta; Newfoundland shall be entitled to be represented in the Senate by six members; the Yukon Territory, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut shall be entitled to be represented in the Senate by one member each.

62In the Case of Quebec each of the Twenty-four Senators representing that Province shall be appointed for One of the Twenty-four Electoral Divisions of Lower Canada specified in Schedule A. to Chapter One of the Consolidated Statutes of Canada.

6323. Qualifications of Senator

64The Qualifications of a Senator shall be as follows:

65 1.He shall be of the full age of Thirty Years;

66 2.He shall be either a natural-born Subject of the Queen, or a Subject of the Queen naturalized by an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, or of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, or of the Legislature of One of the Provinces of Upper Canada, Lower Canada, Canada, Nova Scotia, or New Brunswick, before the Union, or of the Parliament of Canada after the Union;

67 3.He shall be legally or equitably seised as of Freehold for his own Use and Benefit of Lands or Tenements held in Free and Common Socage, or seised or possessed for his own Use and Benefit of Lands or Tenements held in Franc-alleu or in Roture, within the Province for which he is appointed, of the Value of Four thousand Dollars, over and above all Rents, Dues, Debts, Charges, Mortgages, and Incumbrances due or payable out of or charged on or affecting the same;

68 4.His Real and Personal Property shall be together worth Four thousand Dollars over and above his Debts and Liabilities;

69 5.He shall be resident in the Province for which he is appointed;

70 6.In the Case of Quebec he shall have his Real Property Qualification in the Electoral Division for which he is appointed, or shall be resident in that Division.

7124. Summons of Senator

72The Governor General shall from Time to Time, in the Queen’s Name, by Instrument under the Great Seal of Canada, summon qualified Persons to the Senate; and, subject to the Provisions of this Act, every Person so summoned shall become and be a Member of the Senate and a Senator.

7325. Repealed

7426. Addition of Senators in certain cases

75If at any Time on the Recommendation of the Governor General the Queen thinks fit to direct that Four or Eight Members be added to the Senate, the Governor General may by Summons to Four or Eight qualified Persons (as the Case may be), representing equally the Four Divisions of Canada, add to the Senate accordingly.

7627. Reduction of Senate to normal Number

77In case of such Addition being at any Time made, the Governor General shall not summon any Person to the Senate, except on a further like Direction by the Queen on the like Recommendation, to represent one of the Four Divisions until such Division is represented by Twenty-four Senators and no more.

7828. Maximum Number of Senators

79The Number of Senators shall not at any Time exceed One Hundred and thirteen.

8029.

811. Tenure of Place in Senate

82Subject to subsection (2), a Senator shall, subject to the provisions of this Act, hold his place in the Senate for life.

832. Retirement upon attaining age of seventy-five years

84A Senator who is summoned to the Senate after the coming into force of this subsection shall, subject to this Act, hold his place in the Senate until he attains the age of seventy-five years.

8530. Resignation of Place in Senate

86A Senator may by Writing under his Hand addressed to the Governor General resign his Place in the Senate, and thereupon the same shall be vacant.

8731. Disqualification of Senators

88The Place of a Senator shall become vacant in any of the following Cases:

89 1.If for Two consecutive Sessions of the Parliament he fails to give his Attendance in the Senate;

90 2.If he takes an Oath or makes a Declaration or Acknowledgment of Allegiance, Obedience, or Adherence to a Foreign Power, or does an Act whereby he becomes a Subject or Citizen, or entitled to the Rights or Privileges of a Subject or Citizen, of a Foreign Power;

91 3.If he is adjudged Bankrupt or Insolvent, or applies for the Benefit of any Law relating to Insolvent Debtors, or becomes a public Defaulter;

92 4.If he is attainted of Treason or convicted of Felony or of any infamous Crime;

93 5.If he ceases to be qualified in respect of Property or of Residence; provided, that a Senator shall not be deemed to have ceased to be qualified in respect of Residence by reason only of his residing at the Seat of the Government of Canada while holding an Office under that Government requiring his Presence there.

9432. Summons on Vacancy in Senate

95When a Vacancy happens in the Senate by Resignation, Death, or otherwise, the Governor General shall by Summons to a fit and qualified Person fill the Vacancy.

9633. Questions as to Qualifications and Vacancies in Senate

97If any Question arises respecting the Qualification of a Senator or a Vacancy in the Senate the same shall be heard and determined by the Senate.

9834. Appointment of Speaker of Senate

99The Governor General may from Time to Time, by Instrument under the Great Seal of Canada, appoint a Senator to be Speaker of the Senate, and may remove him and appoint another in his Stead.

10035. Quorum of Senate

101Until the Parliament of Canada otherwise provides, the Presence of at least Fifteen Senators, including the Speaker, shall be necessary to constitute a Meeting of the Senate for the Exercise of its Powers.

10236. Voting in Senate

103Questions arising in the Senate shall be decided by a Majority of Voices, and the Speaker shall in all Cases have a Vote, and when the Voices are equal the Decision shall be deemed to be in the Negative.

104Part 2. THE HOUSE OF COMMONS

10537. Constitution of House of Commons in Canada

106The House of Commons shall, subject to the Provisions of this Act, consist of three hundred and eight members of whom one hundred and six shall be elected for Ontario, seventy-five for Quebec, eleven for Nova Scotia, ten for New Brunswick, fourteen for Manitoba, thirty-six for British Columbia, four for Prince Edward Island, twenty-eight for Alberta, fourteen for Saskatchewan, seven for Newfoundland, one for the Yukon Territory, one for the Northwest Territories and one for Nunavut.

10738. Summoning of House of Commons

108The Governor General shall from Time to Time, in the Queen’s Name, by Instrument under the Great Seal of Canada, summon and call together the House of Commons.

10939. Senators not to sit in House of Commons

110A Senator shall not be capable of being elected or of sitting or voting as a Member of the House of Commons.

11140. Electoral districts of the four Provinces

112Until the Parliament of Canada otherwise provides, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick shall, for the Purposes of the Election of Members to serve in the House of Commons, be divided into Electoral Districts as follows:

113 1.Ontario shall be divided into the Counties, Ridings of Counties, Cities, Parts of Cities, and Towns enumerated in the First Schedule to this Act, each whereof shall be an Electoral District, each such District as numbered in that Schedule being entitled to return One Member.

114 2.Quebec shall be divided into Sixty-five Electoral Districts, composed of the Sixty-five Electoral Divisions into which Lower Canada is at the passing of this Act divided under Chapter Two of the Consolidated Statutes of Canada, Chapter Seventy-five of the Consolidated Statutes for Lower Canada, and the Act of the Province of Canada of the Twenty-third Year of the Queen, Chapter One, or any other Act amending the same in force at the Union, so that each such Electoral Division shall be for the Purposes of this Act an Electoral District entitled to return One Member.

115 3.Each of the Eighteen Counties of Nova Scotia shall be an Electoral District. The County of Halifax shall be entitled to return Two Members, and each of the other Counties One Member.

116 4.Each of the Fourteen Counties into which New Brunswick is divided, including the City and County of St. John, shall be an Electoral District. The City of St. John shall also be a separate Electoral District. Each of those Fifteen Electoral Districts shall be entitled to return One Member.

11741. Continuance of existing Election Laws until Parliament of Canada otherwise provides

118Until the Parliament of Canada otherwise provides, all Laws in force in the several Provinces at the Union relative to the following Matters or any of them, namely, — the Qualifications and Disqualifications of Persons to be elected or to sit or vote as Members of the House of Assembly or Legislative Assembly in the several Provinces, the Voters at Elections of such Members, the Oaths to be taken by Voters, the Returning Officers, their Powers and Duties, the Proceedings at Elections, the Periods during which Elections may be continued, the Trial of controverted Elections, and Proceedings incident thereto, the vacating of Seats of Members, and the Execution of new Writs in case of Seats vacated otherwise than by Dissolution, — shall respectively apply to Elections of Members to serve in the House of Commons for the same several Provinces.

119Provided that, until the Parliament of Canada otherwise provides, at any Election for a Member of the House of Commons for the District of Algoma, in addition to Persons qualified by the Law of the Province of Canada to vote, every Male British Subject, aged Twenty-one Years or upwards, being a Householder, shall have a Vote.

12042. Repealed

12143. Repealed

12244. As to Election of Speaker of House of Commons

123The House of Commons on its first assembling after a General Election shall proceed with all practicable Speed to elect One of its Members to be Speaker.

12445. As to filling up Vacancy in Office of Speaker

125In case of a Vacancy happening in the Office of Speaker by Death, Resignation, or otherwise, the House of Commons shall with all practicable Speed proceed to elect another of its Members to be Speaker.

12646. Speaker to preside

127The Speaker shall preside at all Meetings of the House of Commons.

12847. Provision in case of Absence of Speaker

129Until the Parliament of Canada otherwise provides, in case of the Absence for any Reason of the Speaker from the Chair of the House of Commons for a Period of Forty-eight consecutive Hours, the House may elect another of its Members to act as Speaker, and the Member so elected shall during the Continuance of such Absence of the Speaker have and execute all the Powers, Privileges, and Duties of Speaker.

13048. Quorum of House of Commons

131The Presence of at least Twenty Members of the House of Commons shall be necessary to constitute a Meeting of the House for the Exercise of its Powers, and for that Purpose the Speaker shall be reckoned as a Member.

13249. Voting in House of Commons

133Questions arising in the House of Commons shall be decided by a Majority of Voices other than that of the Speaker, and when the Voices are equal, but not otherwise, the Speaker shall have a Vote.

13450. Duration of House of Commons

135Every House of Commons shall continue for Five Years from the Day of the Return of the Writs for choosing the House (subject to be sooner dissolved by the Governor General), and no longer.

13651.

1371. Readjustment of representation in Commons

138The number of members of the House of Commons and the representation of the provinces therein shall, on the completion of each decennial census, be readjusted by such authority, in such manner, and from such time as the Parliament of Canada provides from time to time, subject and according to the following rules:

139 1.There shall be assigned to each of the provinces a number of members equal to the number obtained by dividing the population of the province by the electoral quotient and rounding up any fractional remainder to one.

140 2.If the number of members assigned to a province by the application of rule 1 and section 51A is less than the total number assigned to that province on the date of the coming into force of the Constitution Act, 1985 (Representation), there shall be added to the number of members so assigned such number of members as will result in the province having the same number of members as were assigned on that date.

141 3.After the application of rules 1 and 2 and section 51A, there shall, in respect of each province that meets the condition set out in rule 4, be added, if necessary, a number of members such that, on the completion of the readjustment, the number obtained by dividing the number of members assigned to that province by the total number of members assigned to all the provinces is as close as possible to, without being below, the number obtained by dividing the population of that province by the total population of all the provinces.

142 4.Rule 3 applies to a province if, on the completion of the preceding readjustment, the number obtained by dividing the number of members assigned to that province by the total number of members assigned to all the provinces was equal to or greater than the number obtained by dividing the population of that province by the total population of all the provinces, the population of each province being its population as at July 1 of the year of the decennial census that preceded that readjustment according to the estimates prepared for the purpose of that readjustment.

143 5.Unless the context indicates otherwise, in these rules, the population of a province is the estimate of its population as at July 1 of the year of the most recent decennial census.

144 6.In these rules, “electoral quotient” means

145 a.111,166, in relation to the readjustment following the completion of the 2011 decennial census, and

146 b.in relation to the readjustment following the completion of any subsequent decennial census, the number obtained by multiplying the electoral quotient that was applied in the preceding readjustment by the number that is the average of the numbers obtained by dividing the population of each province by the population of the province as at July 1 of the year of the preceding decennial census according to the estimates prepared for the purpose of the preceding readjustment, and rounding up any fractional remainder of that multiplication to one.

1471.1. Population estimates

148For the purpose of the rules in subsection (1), there is required to be prepared an estimate of the population of Canada and of each province as at July 1, 2001 and July 1, 2011 — and, in each year following the 2011 decennial census in which a decennial census is taken, as at July 1 of that year — by such authority, in such manner, and from such time as the Parliament of Canada provides from time to time.

1492. Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories and Nunavut

150The Yukon Territory as bounded and described in the schedule to chapter Y-2 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1985, shall be entitled to one member, the Northwest Territories as bounded and described in section 2 of chapter N-27 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1985, as amended by section 77 of chapter 28 of the Statutes of Canada, 1993, shall be entitled to one member, and Nunavut as bounded and described in section 3 of chapter 28 of the Statutes of Canada, 1993, shall be entitled to one member.

15151A. Constitution of House of Commons

152Notwithstanding anything in this Act a province shall always be entitled to a number of members in the House of Commons not less than the number of senators representing such province.

15352. Increase of Number of House of Commons

154The Number of Members of the House of Commons may be from Time to Time increased by the Parliament of Canada, provided the proportionate Representation of the Provinces prescribed by this Act is not thereby disturbed.

155Part 3. MONEY VOTES; ROYAL ASSENT

15653. Appropriation and Tax Bills

157Bills for appropriating any Part of the Public Revenue, or for imposing any Tax or Impost, shall originate in the House of Commons.

15854. Recommendation of Money Votes

159It shall not be lawful for the House of Commons to adopt or pass any Vote, Resolution, Address, or Bill for the Appropriation of any Part of the Public Revenue, or of any Tax or Impost, to any Purpose that has not been first recommended to that House by Message of the Governor General in the Session in which such Vote, Resolution, Address, or Bill is proposed.

16055. Royal Assent to Bills, etc

161Where a Bill passed by the Houses of the Parliament is presented to the Governor General for the Queen’s Assent, he shall declare, according to his Discretion, but subject to the Provisions of this Act and to Her Majesty’s Instructions, either that he assents thereto in the Queen’s Name, or that he withholds the Queen’s Assent, or that he reserves the Bill for the Signification of the Queen’s Pleasure.

16256. Disallowance by Order in Council of Act assented to by Governor General

163Where the Governor General assents to a Bill in the Queen’s Name, he shall by the first convenient Opportunity send an authentic Copy of the Act to One of Her Majesty’s Principal Secretaries of State, and if the Queen in Council within Two Years after Receipt thereof by the Secretary of State thinks fit to disallow the Act, such Disallowance (with a Certificate of the Secretary of State of the Day on which the Act was received by him) being signified by the Governor General, by Speech or Message to each of the Houses of the Parliament or by Proclamation, shall annul the Act from and after the Day of such Signification.

16457. Signification of Queen’s Pleasure on Bill reserved

165A Bill reserved for the Signification of the Queen’s Pleasure shall not have any Force unless and until, within Two Years from the Day on which it was presented to the Governor General for the Queen’s Assent, the Governor General signifies, by Speech or Message to each of the Houses of the Parliament or by Proclamation, that it has received the Assent of the Queen in Council.

166An Entry of every such Speech, Message, or Proclamation shall be made in the Journal of each House, and a Duplicate thereof duly attested shall be delivered to the proper Officer to be kept among the Records of Canada.

167V. PROVINCIAL CONSTITUTIONS

168Part 1. EXECUTIVE POWER

16958. Appointment of Lieutenant Governors of Provinces

170For each Province there shall be an Officer, styled the Lieutenant Governor, appointed by the Governor General in Council by Instrument under the Great Seal of Canada.

17159. Tenure of Office of Lieutenant Governor

172A Lieutenant Governor shall hold Office during the Pleasure of the Governor General; but any Lieutenant Governor appointed after the Commencement of the First Session of the Parliament of Canada shall not be removeable within Five Years from his Appointment, except for Cause assigned, which shall be communicated to him in Writing within One Month after the Order for his Removal is made, and shall be communicated by Message to the Senate and to the House of Commons within One Week thereafter if the Parliament is then sitting, and if not then within One Week after the Commencement of the next Session of the Parliament.

17360. Salaries of Lieutenant Governors

174The Salaries of the Lieutenant Governors shall be fixed and provided by the Parliament of Canada.

17561. Oaths, etc., of Lieutenant Governor

176Every Lieutenant Governor shall, before assuming the Duties of his Office, make and subscribe before the Governor General or some Person authorized by him Oaths of Allegiance and Office similar to those taken by the Governor General.

17762. Application of Provisions referring to Lieutenant Governor

178The Provisions of this Act referring to the Lieutenant Governor extend and apply to the Lieutenant Governor for the Time being of each Province, or other the Chief Executive Officer or Administrator for the Time being carrying on the Government of the Province, by whatever Title he is designated.

17963. Appointment of Executive Officers for Ontario and Quebec

180The Executive Council of Ontario and of Quebec shall be composed of such Persons as the Lieutenant Governor from Time to Time thinks fit, and in the first instance of the following Officers, namely, — the Attorney General, the Secretary and Registrar of the Province, the Treasurer of the Province, the Commissioner of Crown Lands, and the Commissioner of Agriculture and Public Works, with in Quebec the Speaker of the Legislative Council and the Solicitor General. (31)

18164. Executive Government of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick

182The Constitution of the Executive Authority in each of the Provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick shall, subject to the Provisions of this Act, continue as it exists at the Union until altered under the Authority of this Act.

18365. Powers to be exercised by Lieutenant Governor of Ontario or Quebec with Advice, or alone

184All Powers, Authorities, and Functions which under any Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, or of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, or of the Legislature of Upper Canada, Lower Canada, or Canada, were or are before or at the Union vested in or exerciseable by the respective Governors or Lieutenant Governors of those Provinces, with the Advice or with the Advice and Consent of the respective Executive Councils thereof, or in conjunction with those Councils, or with any Number of Members thereof, or by those Governors or Lieutenant Governors individually, shall, as far as the same are capable of being exercised after the Union in relation to the Government of Ontario and Quebec respectively, be vested in and shall or may be exercised by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario and Quebec respectively, with the Advice or with the Advice and Consent of or in conjunction with the respective Executive Councils, or any Members thereof, or by the Lieutenant Governor individually, as the Case requires, subject nevertheless (except with respect to such as exist under Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain, or of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland,) to be abolished or altered by the respective Legislatures of Ontario and Quebec.

18566. Application of Provisions referring to Lieutenant Governor in Council

186The Provisions of this Act referring to the Lieutenant Governor in Council shall be construed as referring to the Lieutenant Governor of the Province acting by and with the Advice of the Executive Council thereof.

18767. Administration in Absence, etc., of Lieutenant Governor

188The Governor General in Council may from Time to Time appoint an Administrator to execute the Office and Functions of Lieutenant Governor during his Absence, Illness, or other Inability.

18968. Seats of Provincial Governments

190Unless and until the Executive Government of any Province otherwise directs with respect to that Province, the Seats of Government of the Provinces shall be as follows, namely, — of Ontario, the City of Toronto; of Quebec, the City of Quebec; of Nova Scotia, the City of Halifax; and of New Brunswick, the City of Fredericton.

191Part 2. LEGISLATIVE POWER

192A. Ontario

19369. Legislature for Ontario

194There shall be a Legislature for Ontario consisting of the Lieutenant Governor and of One House, styled the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.

19570. Electoral districts

196The Legislative Assembly of Ontario shall be composed of Eighty-two Members, to be elected to represent the Eighty-two Electoral Districts set forth in the First Schedule to this Act.

197B. Quebec

19871. Legislature for Quebec

199There shall be a Legislature for Quebec consisting of the Lieutenant Governor and of Two Houses, styled the Legislative Council of Quebec and the Legislative Assembly of Quebec.

20072. Constitution of Legislative Council

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