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Constitution of Austria (1920, reinst. 1945, rev. 2009)

1The following text is from the Constitute Project, who through a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, has generously made this content available for use for noncommercial purposes. Follow (right-click) the links and read the annotation to learn more. 1

2


3Chapter I. General Provisions. European Union

4Section A. General Provisions

5Art 1

6Austria is a democratic republic. Its law emanates from the people.

7Art 2

81. Austria is a federal state.

92. The Federal State is composed of the autonomous Laender of Burgenland, Carinthia, Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tirol, Vorarlberg and Vienna.

103. Changes in the composition of the Laender or a restriction of the involvement of the Laender provided for in this para and in Art 3 also require constitutional regulations of the Laender.

11Art 3

121. The Federal territory comprises the territories of the Federal Laender.

132. State treaties changing the Federal boundaries may only be concluded with the approval of the Laender affected.

143. Modifications of boundaries within the Federal territory require concurrent laws of the Federation and the Laender affected. Ratifications of boundaries within the Federal territory only require concurrent laws of the Laender affected.

154. Resolutions of the National Council on modifications of boundaries according to para 2 and 3, to the extent they do not concern retification of boundaries, require at least the votes of half of the members and the majority of two thirds of the votes cast.

16Art 4

171. The Federal territory is a uniform currency, economic and customs area.

182. Intermediate customs barriers or other traffic restrictions may not be established within Federal territory.

19Art 5

201. The Federal capital and seat of the highest Federal authorities is Vienna.

212. For the duration of extraordinary circumstances the Federal President can, at the request of the Federal Government, relocate the seat of the highest Federal authorities to another location in the Federal territory.

22Art 6

231. For the Republic of Austria there prevails a uniform nationality.

242. Nationals are citizens of the Land where they have their principal domicile; Land laws can however stipulate that also nationals who have a domicile, but not their principal domicile, in the Land are citizens of that Land.

253. A person's principal domicile is established in the place where he has settled with the intention, provable or emerging from the circumstances, of setting up there the centre of his relations of life. If this requirement is, on the basis of an overall consideration of a person's professional, economic and social relations of life, met by more than one domicile, this person has to designate as his principal domicile the one which he has the closest relationship to.

26Art 7

271. All nationals are equal before the law. Privileges based upon birth, sex, estate, class or religion are excluded. No one shall be discriminated against because of his disability. The Republic (Federation, Laender and municipalities) commits itself to ensuring the equal treatment of disabled and non-disabled persons in all spheres of every-day life.

282. The Federation, Laender and municipalities subscribe to the de-facto equality of men and women. Measures to promote factual equality of women and men, particularly by eliminating actually existing inequalities, are admissible.

293. Official designations can be applied in such a way as to indicate the sex of the officer holder. The same holds good for titles, academic degrees and descriptions of occupations.

304. Public employees, including members of the Federal Army, are guaranteed the unrestricted exercise of their political rights.

31Art 8

321. German is the official language of the Republic without prejudice to the rights provided by Federal law for linguistic minorities.

332. The Republic (Federation, Laender and municipalities) subscribe to its linguistic and cultural multiplicity having grown, expressed in the autochthonous ethnic groups. Language and culture, existence and preservation of these ethnic groups are to be respected, safeguarded and to be supported.

343. The Austrian sign language is recognized as independent language. Details are regulated by the laws.

35Art 8a

361. The colours of the Republic of Austria are red-white-red. The flag consists of three identically broad horizontal stripes of which the intermediate is white, the upper and the lower are red.

372. The coat of arms of the Republic of Austria (the Federal coat of arms) consists of an unfettered, single-headed, black, gilt-armed and red-tongued eagle on whose breast is imposed a red shield intersected by a silver crosspiece. On its head the eagle bears a mural crown with three visible merlons. A sundered iron chain rings both talons. The right holds a golden sickle with inward turned blade, the left a golden hammer.

383. Detailed provisions, in particular as to safeguard of the colours, the coat of arms, and the seal of the Republic, are settled by Federal law.

39Art 9

401. The generally recognized rules of international law are regarded as integral parts of Federal law.

412. By Law or state treaty having been approved according to Art. 50 para I may transferred specific Federal competences to other states or intergovernmental organizations. The same way the activity of agents of foreign states or intergovernmental organizations inside Austria and the activity of Austrian agents abroad may be regulated as well as the transfer of single Federal competences of other states or intergovernmental organizations to Austrian agents be provided for. Within this frame it may be provided for that Austrian agents shall be subject to the authority of agents of other states or intergovernmental organizations or such be subject to the authority of Austrian agents.

42Art 9a

431. Austria subscribes to comprehensive national defence. Its task is to preserve the Federal territory's outside independence as well as its inviolability and its unity, especially as regards the maintenance and defence of permanent neutrality. In this connection, too, the constitutional establishments and their capacity to function as well as the democratic freedoms of residents are to be safeguarded and defended against acts of armed attack from outside.

442. Universal national defence comprises military, intellectual, civil and economic national defence.

453. Every male national is liable to military service. Female nationals may render voluntary service in the Federal Army as soldiers and have the right to terminate such service.

464. Conscientious objectors who refuse the fulfilment of compulsory military service and are exonerated therefrom must perform an alternative service (civilian service)

47Art 10

481. The Federation has powers of legislation and execution in the following matters:

49 1.the Federal Constitution, in particular elections to the National Council, and referenda as provided by the Federal Constitution; the Constitutional Court;

50 2.external affairs including political and economic representation with regard to other countries, in particular the conclusion of international treaties, notwithstanding Laender competence in accordance with Art. 16 para 1; demarcation of frontiers; trade in goods and livestock with other countries; customs;

51 3.regulation and control of entry into and exit from the Federal territory; immigration and emigration; passports; residence prohibition, expulsion and deportation; asylum; extradition

52 4.Federal finances, in particular taxes to be collected exclusively or in part on behalf of the Federation; monopolies;

53 5.the monetary, credit, stock exchange and banking system; the weights and measures, standards and hallmark system;

54 6.civil law affairs, including the rules relating to economic association but excluding regulations which render real property transactions, legal acquisition on death by individuals outside the circle of legal heirs not excepted, with aliens and transactions in built-up real property or such as is earmarked for development subject to restrictions by the administrative authorities; private endowment affairs; criminal law, excluding administrative penal law and administrative penal procedure in matters which fall within the autonomous sphere of competence of the Laender; administration of justice; establishments for the protection of society against criminal or otherwise dangerous elements; copyright; press affairs; expropriation in so far as it does not concern matters falling within the autonomous sphere of competence of the Laender; matters pertaining to notaries, lawyers, and related professions;

55 7.the maintenance of peace, order and security including the extension of primary assistance in general, but excluding local public safety matters; the right of association and assembly; matters pertaining to personal status, including the registration of births, marriages and deaths, and change of name; aliens police and residence registration; matters pertaining to weapons, ammunition and explosives, and the use of fire-arms;

56 8.matters pertaining to trade and industry; public advertising and commercial brokerage; restraint of unfair competition; patent matters and the protection of designs, trade marks, and other commodity descriptions; matters pertaining to patent agents; matters pertaining to civil engineering; chambers of commerce, trade, and industry; establishment of professional associations in so far as they extend to the Federal territory as a whole, but with the exception of those in the field of agriculture and forestry;

57 9.the traffic system relating to the railways, aviation and shipping in so far as the last of these does not fall under Art. 11; motor traffic; matters, with exception of the highway police, which concern roads declared by Federal law as Federal highways on account of their importance for transit traffic; river and navigation police in so far as these do not fall under Art. 11; the postal and telecommunications system; environmental compatibility evaluation for projects relating to these matters where material effects on the environment are to be anticipated;

58 10.mining; forestry, including timber flotage; water rights; control and conservation of waters for the safe diversion of floods or for shipping and raft transport; regulation of torrents; construction and maintenance of waterways; regulation and standardization of electrical plants and establishments as well as safety measures in this field; provisions pertaining to electric power transmission in so far as the transmission extends over two or more Laender; matters pertaining to steam and other power-driven engines; surveying;

59 11.labour legislation in so far as it does not fall under Art. 12; social and contractual insurance; chambers for workers and salaried employees with the exception of those relating to agriculture and forestry;

60 12.public health with the exception of burial and disposal of the dead and municipal sanitation and first aid services, but only sanitary supervision with respect to hospitals, nursing homes, health resorts and natural curative resources; measures to counter factors hazardous to the environment through the transgression of immission limits; clear air maintenance notwithstanding the competence of the Laender for heating installations; refuse disposal in respect of dangerous refuse, but in respect of other refuse only in so far as a need for the issue of uniform regulations exists; veterinary affairs; nutrition affairs, including foodstuffs inspection; regulation of commercial transactions in seed and plant commodities, in fodder and fertilizer as well as plant preservatives, and in plant safety appliances including their admission and, in the case of seed and plant commodities, likewise their acceptance;

61 13.archive and library services for the sciences and specialist purposes; matters pertaining to Federal collections and establishments serving the arts and sciences; matters pertaining to the Federal theatres with the exception of building affairs; the preservation of monuments; religious affairs; census as well as - allowing for the rights of the Laender to engage within their own territory in every kind of statistical activity - other statistics in so far as they do not serve the interests of one Land only; endowments and foundations when their purposes extend beyond a single Land's sphere of interests and they have hitherto not been autonomously administered by the Laender;

62 14.organization and command of the Federal police ; settlement of the conditions pertaining to the establishment and organization of other protective forces with the exception of the municipal constabularies; settlement of the conditions pertaining to the armament of the protective forces and their right to make use of their weapons.

63 15.military affairs; matters pertaining to civilian service; war damage and welfare measures for combatants and their surviving dependants; care of war graves; whatever measures seem necessary by reason or in consequence of war to ensure the uniform conduct of economic affairs, in particular with regard to the population's supply with essentials;

64 16.the establishment of Federal authorities and other Federal agencies; service code for and staff representation rights of Federal employees;

65 17.population policy in so far as it concerns the grant of children's allowances and the creation of burden equalization on behalf of families;

66 18.elections to the European Parliament.

672. In Federal laws on the right of succession to undivided farm estate as well as in Federal laws promulgated in accordance with para 1 subpara 10 above Land legislatures can be empowered to issue implementing provisions with respect to individual provisions which must be specifically designated. The provisions of Art. 15 para 6 shall be analogously applied to these Land laws. Execution of the implementing laws issued in such cases lies with the Federation, but the enabling ordinances, in so far as they relate to the implementing provisions of the Land law, need foregoing agreement with the Land government concerned.

683. The Federation must allow the Laender opportunity to present their views before its conclusion of treaties which within the meaning of Art. 16 render necessary enabling measures or affect the autonomous sphere of competence of the Laender in another way. Is the Federation in possession of a uniform comment by the Laender, the Federation is bound thereby when concluding the state treaty. It may deviate there from only for compelling foreign policy reasons; the Federation must advise the Laender of these reasons without delay.

694. (Note: Repealed by F. L.G. No. 101311994)

705. (Note: Repealed by F.L.G. No. 101311994)

716. (Note: Repealed by F. L.G. No. 101311994)

72Art 11

731. In the following matters legislation is the business of the Federation, execution that of the Laender:

74 1.nationality;

75 2.professional associations in so far as they do not fall under Art. 10, but with the exception of those in the field of agriculture and forestry as well as in the field of alpine guidance and skiing instruction and in that of sport instruction falling within Laender autonomous competence;

76 3.social housing affairs except for the promotion of domestic dwelling construction and domestic rehabilitation;

77 4.road police;

78 5.sanitation;

79 6.inland shipping as regards shipping licences, shipping facilities and compulsory measures pertaining to such facilities in so far as it does not apply to the Danube, Lake Constance, Lake Neusiedl, and boundary stretches of other frontier waters; river and navigation police on inland waters with the exception of the Danube, Lake Constance, Lake Neusiedl, and boundary stretches of other frontier waters;

80 7.Environmental impact assessment for projects relating to these matters where material effects on the environment are to be anticipated; in so far as a need for the issue of uniform regulations is considered to exist, the approval of such projects.

81 8.Animal protection, to the extent not being in the competence of Federal legislation according to other regulations, with the exception of the exercise of hunting or fishing.

822. In so far as a need for the issue of uniform regulations is considered to exist, the administrative procedure, the general provisions of administrative penal law, the administrative penal procedure and the administrative execution also in matters where legislation lies with the Laender, in particular too in matters pertaining to taxation, are prescribed by Federal law; divergent regulations can be made in Federal or Laender laws settling the individual spheres of administration only when they are requisite for regularization of the matter in hand.

833. Enabling ordinances to the Federal laws promulgated in accordance with paras 1 and 2 above shall be issued, save as otherwise provided in these laws, by the Federation. The manner of publication for enabling ordinances whose issue by the Laender in matters concerning para 1, subparas 4 and 6 above is empowered by Federal law can be prescribed by Federal law.

844. The application of the laws promulgated pursuant to para 2 and the enabling ordinances issued hereto lies with the Federation or the Laender, depending on whether the business which forms the subject of the procedure is a matter for execution by the Federation or the Laender.

855. Federal laws can lay down uniform output limits for atmospheric pollutants in so far as a need for the issue of uniform regulations exists. These may not be exceeded in the Federal and Land regulations prescribed for the individual sectors of the administration.

866. In so far as a need for the issue of uniform regulations is considered to exist, Federal law shall likewise prescribe the citizens' participation procedure for projects to be governed by Federal law, the participation in the administrative procedures subsequent to a citizens' participation procedure, and consideration of the results of the citizens' participation procedure at the time of the issue of the requisite permissions for the projects in question as well as the approval of the projects specified in Art. 10 para I subpara 9. In respect of the execution of these regulations para 4 applies.

877. (Note: Repealed)

888. (Note: Repealed)

899. In the matters specified in para 1 subpara 7 and 8 the following powers are vested in the Federal Government and in the individual Federal ministries as against a Land Government:

90 1.the power to inspect via Federal agencies documents of the Land authorities;

91 2.the power to demand the transmission of reports respecting the execution of laws and ordinances issued by the Federation;

92 3.the power to demand for the preparation of the issue of laws and ordinances by the Federation all information necessary respecting execution;

93 4.the power in certain instances to demand information and the presentation of documents in so far as this is necessary for the exercise of other powers.

94Art 12

951. In the following matters legislation as regards principles is the business of the Federation, the issue of implementing laws and execution the business of the Laender:

96 1.social welfare; population policy in so far as it does not fall under Art. 10; public social and welfare establishments; maternity, infant and adolescent welfare; hospitals and nursing homes; requirements to be imposed for health reasons on health resorts, sanatoria, and health establishments; natural curative resources;

97 2.public institutions for the adjustment of disputes out of court;

98 3.land reform, in particular land consolidation measures and resettlement;

99 4.the protection of plants against diseases and pests;

100 5.matters pertaining to electric power in so far as they do not fall under Art. 10;

101 6.labour legislation and the protection of workers and employees in so far as it is a matter of workers and employees engaged in agriculture and forestry.

1022. In matters pertaining to land reform the final decision and that at Land level lies with tribunals composed of a chairman and judges, administrative officials, and experts; the tribunal qualified to pronounce final judgment will be constituted within the framework of the competent Federal Ministry. The organization, the duties and the procedure of the tribunals as well as the principles for the organization of other authorities concerned with matters pertaining to land reform will be prescribed by Federal law. This shall provide that the decisions by the tribunals are not subject to repeal and change by way of administrative ruling; the exclusion of ordinary appeal from the authority of first instance to the Land jurisdiction is inadmissible.

1033. If and inasmuch as the rulings of Land authorities in matters pertaining to electric power deviate from one another or a Land Government was the sole competent Land authority, the competence in such a matter passes, provided a party so demands within the deadline to be fixed by Federal law, to the Federal Ministry competent in the business. As soon as the Ministry has reached a decision, the rulings hitherto made by the Land authorities are invalidated.

1044. Fundamental laws and fundamental provisions in Federal legislation shall be expressly specified as such.

105Art 13

1061. The competences of the Federation and the Laender in the field of taxation will be prescribed in a special Federal constitutional law ("Constitutional Finance Law").

1072. The Federation, the Laender, and the municipalities must aim at the securement of an overall balance and sustainable balanced budgets in the conduct of their economic affairs. They have to coordinate their budgeting with regard to these goals.

1083. Federation, Laender and municipalities have to aim at the equal status of women and men in the budgeting.

109Art 14

1101. Save as provided otherwise in the following paragraphs, legislation and execution in the field of schooling and in the field of education in matters pertaining to pupil and student hostels are the business of the Federation. The matters settled in Art. 14a do not belong to schooling and education within the meaning of this Article.

1112. Save as provided otherwise by para 4 subpara a below, legislation is the business of the Federation, execution the business of the Laender in matters pertaining to the service code for and staff representation rights of teachers at public compulsory schools. Such Federal laws can empower Land legislatures to issue implementing provisions to individual provisions which shall be precisely specified; in these instances the provisions of Art. 15 para 6 apply analogously. The enabling ordinances in respect of such Federation laws, save as provided otherwise herein, shall be issued by the Federation.

1123. In the following matters legislation as regards principles is the business of the Federation, the issue of implementing laws and execution the business of the Laender:

113 a.composition and disposition, including their members' appointment and remuneration, of the boards to be constituted in the Laender and political districts as part of the Federal school authorities;

114 b.framework organization (structure, organizational forms, establishment, maintenance, dissolution, local districts, sizes of classes and instruction periods) of public compulsory schools;

115 c.framework organization of publicly maintained student hostels provided exclusively or mainly for pupils of compulsory schools;

116 d.professional employment qualifications for kindergarten teachers and educational assistants to be employed by the Laender, municipalities, or municipal associations at the centres and student hostels provided exclusively or mainly for pupils of compulsory schools.

1174. In the following matters legislation and execution is the business of the Laender:

118 a.competence of authorities, on the basis of laws promulgated pursuant to para 2 above, to exercise the service prerogative over teachers at public compulsory schools; the Laender laws shall provide that the Federal school authorities in the Laender and political districts must participate in appointments, other selections for service positions, and awards as well as in eligibility and disciplinary proceedings. The participation in appointments, other selections for service positions, and awards shall at all events comprise a right of nomination on the part of the primary level Federal school authority;

119 b.the kindergarten system and the day-homes system.

1205. In the following matters legislation and execution are, in deviation from the provisions of paras 2 to 4 above, the business of the Federation:

121 a.public demonstration schools, demonstration kindergartens, demonstration day-homes and demonstration student hostels attached to a public school for the purpose of practical instruction as provided by the curriculum;

122 b.publicly maintained student hostels intended exclusively or mainly for pupils of the demonstration schools mentioned in subpara a above;

123 c.the service code for and staff representation rights of teachers, educational assistants and kindergarten teachers at the public institutions mentioned in sub-paras a and b above.

1245a. Democracy, Humanity, solidarity, peace and justice as well as openness and tolerance towards people are the elementary values of the school, based on which it secures for the whole population, independent from origin, social situation and financial background a maximum of educational level, permanently safeguarding and developing optimal quality. In a partnership - like cooperation between pupils, parents and teachers, children and juveniles are to be allowed the optimal intellectual, mental and physical development to let them become healthy, selfconfident, happy, performance - oriented, dutiful, talented and creative humans capable to take over responsibility for themselves, fellow human beings, environment and following generations, oriented in social, religious and moral values. Any juvenile shall in accordance with his development and educational course be led to independent judgement and social understanding, be open to political, religious and ideological thinking of others and become capable to participate in the cultural and economic life of Austria, Europe and the world and participate in the common tasks of mankind, in love for freedom and peace.

1256. Schools are institutions in which pupils shall be educated together according to a comprehensive fixed curriculum and in which, in connection with the imparting of knowledge and skills, a comprehensive educational goal is strived for. Public schools are those schools which are established and maintained by authorities so required by law. The Federation is the authority so required by law in so far as legislation and execution in matters pertaining to the establishment, maintenance and dissolution of public schools are the business of the Federation. The Land or, according to the Laender statutory provisions, the municipality or a municipal association is the authority so required by law in so far as legislation or implementing legislation and execution in matters pertaining to establishment, maintenance and dissolution of public schools are the business of the Land. Admission to public school is open to all without distinction of birth, sex, race, estate, class, language and religion, and in other respects within the limits of the statutory requirements. The same applies analogously to kindergartens, day homes and student hostels.

1266a. Legislation has to provide a differentiated school system which is organized according to the educational program at least in general educational and vocational schools and according to the level of education in primary and secondary schools, in which further adequate distinguishing shall be provided for the secondary schools.

1277. Private schools are other than public schools; they shall be accorded public status according to the statutory provisions.

1287a. The compulsory school attendance is at least nine years and also compulsory vocational school attendance exists.

1298. The Federation is entitled, in matters which in accordance with paras 2 and 3 appertain to the execution by the Laender, to obtain information about adherence to the laws and ordinances issued on the basis of these paragraphs and can for this purpose delegate officials to the schools and student hostels. Should shortcomings be observed, the Governor can be instructed (Art. 20 para 1) to redress the shortcomings within an appropriate deadline. The Governor must see to the redress of the shortcomings according to the statutory provisions and, to effect the execution of such instructions, is bound also to employ the means at his disposal in his capacity as an authority acting on behalf of the Land in its autonomous sphere of competence.

1309. The general rules in Arts. 10 and 21 as to the distribution of competences for legislation and execution regarding conditions of service with the Federation, the Laender, the municipalities and the municipal associations apply in respect of the service code for teachers, educational assistants and kindergarten teachers, save as provided otherwise by the preceding paragraphs. The same applies to the staff representation rights of teachers, educational assistants, and kindergarten teachers.

13110. In matters pertaining to the free attendance of schools, and the relationship between school and the Churches (religious societies) including religious instruction at school, the National Council, in so far as matters pertaining to universities and colleges are not concerned, can vote Federal legislation only in the presence of at least half the members and by a two thirds majority of the votes cast. The same applies if the principles of para 6a shall be left aside and to the ratification of state treaties negotiated in the matters mentioned above and which fall into the category specified in Art. 50.

13211. (Note: Repealed by F. L. G. No. 31611975)

133Art 14a

1341. Save as provided otherwise in the following paragraphs, legislation and execution are the business of the Laender with regard to agricultural and forestry schooling as well as with regard to agricultural and forestry education in matters pertaining to student hostels and in matters pertaining to the service code for and staff representation rights of teachers and educational assistants at the schools and student hostels falling under this Article. Matters pertaining to college and university training do not fall under agricultural and forestry schooling.

1352. Legislation and execution is the business of the Federation in the following matters:

136 a.secondary agricultural and forestry schools and schools for the training and supplementary training of teachers at agricultural and forestry schools;

137 b.technical colleges for the training of forestry employees;

138 c.public agricultural and forestry technical colleges linked organizationally to one of the public schools mentioned in subparas a and b above or to a Federal agricultural and forestry research institute to ensure provision of the demonstrations scheduled in the curricula;

139 d.student hostels exclusively or mainly designated for pupils of the schools mentioned in subparas a to c above;

140 e.service code for and staff representational rights of the teachers and educational assistants in the establishments mentioned in subparas a to d above;

141 f.subsidies for staff expenditure of the denominational agricultural and forestry schools;

142 g.Federal agricultural and forestry institutes linked organizationally to an agricultural and forestry school supported by the Federation to ensure provision of the demonstrations scheduled in the curricula of these schools.

1433. Save as it concerns matters mentioned in para 2 above, legislation is the business of the Federation, execution the business of the Laender in matters of

144 a.religious instruction;

145 b.the service code for and staff representation rights of teachers at public agricultural and forestry vocational schools and technical colleges and of educational assistants at publicly maintained student hostels exclusively or mainly designated for pupils of these schools, excepting however matters of official competence for the exercise of the service prerogative over these teachers and educational assistants. Land legislatures can be authorized in Federal laws promulgated by reason of the provisions under subpara b above to issue implementing provisions for individual regulations which shall be precisely specified; in this connection the provisions of Art. 15 para 6 apply analogously. Enabling ordinances for the Federal laws shall, save as otherwise provided there, be issued by the Federation.

1464. Legislation as regards principles is the business of the Federation, the issue of implementing laws and execution is the business of the Laender

147 a.as regards the agricultural and forestry vocational schools in matters pertaining to definitions of the instructional objective, the obligatory subjects, and free tuition as well as in matters pertaining to compulsory schooling and the transfer from the school in one Land to the school in another Land;

148 b.as regards the agricultural and forestry technical colleges in matters pertaining to the definition of admission prerequisites, instructional objective, organizational forms, extent of the teaching and obligatory subjects, free tuition, and the transfer from the school in one Land to the school in another Land;

149 c.in matters pertaining to the public status of private agricultural and forestry vocational schools and training colleges with the exception of schools falling under para 2 subpara b above;

150 d.as regards the organization and competence of advisory boards who in the matters pertaining to para I above participate in the execution by the Laender.

1515. The establishment of the agricultural and forestry technical colleges and research institutes specified under para 2 subparas c and g above is only admissible if the Land government of the Land in which the vocational school or technical college is to have its location has agreed to the establishment. This agreement is not requisite if the establishment concerns an agricultural and forestry school which is to be organizationally linked to a school for the training and supplementary training of teachers and agricultural and forestry schools to ensure provision of the demonstrations scheduled in their curricula.

1526. It lies within the competence of the Federation to see to the observance of the regulations issued by it in matters whose execution in accordance with paras 3 and 4 appertains to the Laender.

1537. The provisions of Art. 14 paras Abs. 5a, 6, 6a, 7, 7a and 9 analogously also hold good for the spheres specified

1548. Art. 14 para 10 holds good analogously.

155Art 14b

1561. Legislation as regards matters of public tendering, to the extent not being subject to para 3, is the business of the Federation.

1572. The execution in the matters of para I is

158 1.Business of the Federation regarding

159 a.the award of contracts by the Federation;

160 b.the award of contracts by endownments, funds and institutions in the sense of Art. 126b para 1;

161 c.the award of contracts by enterprises in the sense of Arts. 126b para 2, if the financial share or the influence of the Federation caused by other financial or other economic or organizational measures, is at least equal to the financial share or the influence of the Laender;

162 d.the award of contracts by selfgoverning bodies corporate established by Federal law;

163 e.the award of contracts by legal entities not mentioned in lit. a to d and sub-para 2 lit. a to d;

164 aa.financed by the Federation, if the financial contribution of the Federation is at least equal to the one of the Laender;

165 bb.which regarding the management are subject to the control by the Federation, to the extent the award is not subject to sublit. aa or subpara 2 lit. e sublit. aa;

166 cc.whose administrative-, managing- or supervising bodies consist of members having been appointed by the Federation, if the Federation has appointed at least an equal number of members like the Laender, to the extent the award is not subject to sublit. aa or bb or subpara 2 lit. e sublit. aa or bb;

167 f.the joint award of contracts by the Federation and the Laender, to the extent not being subject to subpara 1 lit. f as well as the joint award of contracts by several Laender.

168 g.the award of contracts by legal entities not being named in lit a to f and subpara 2;

169 2.the business of the Laender regarding

170 a.the award of contracts by the Land, the municipalities and associations of municipalities;

171 b.the award of contracts by endownments, funds and institution in the sense of Art. 127 para I and of Art. 127 a para I and 8;

172 c.the award of contracts by enterprises in the sense of Art. 126b para 2, to the extend it is not subject to subpara I lit c, as well as the award of contracts by enterprises in the sense of Art. 127 para 3 and of Art. 127a para 3 and 8;

173 d.the award of contracts by selfgoverning legal entities created by Laender law;

174 e.the award of contracts by legal entities not being named in subpara I lit. a to d and lit. a to d;

175 aa.being financed by the Land alone or jointly with the Federation or other Laender, to the extent not being subject to subpara I lit. e sublit. aa;

176 bb.which regarding its management are subject to the control by the Land, to the extent the award is not subject to subpara I lit. e sublit. aa or bb or sublit. aa;

177 cc.whose administrative-, managing- or supervisory bodies consist of members having been appointed by the Land to the extent, not being subject to subpara I lit. e sublit. aa to cc or sublit. aa or bb;

178 f.the joint award of contracts by the Federation and the Laender, to the extent not being subject to subpara 1 lit. f as well as the joint award of contracts by several Laender.

179Municipalities, without regard to the number of its inhabitants, are deemed to be legal entities which in the sense of subpara I lit. b and c and of subpara 2 lit. b and c are subject to the jurisdiction of the public audit office. In the frame of subpara 1 lit. b, c, e and f tenderees in the sense of subpara 1 shall be allocated to the Federation and tenderees in the sense of subpara 2 to the respective Land. If according to subpara 2 lit. c, e or f several Laender are involved, the competence for the execution depends on the preponderance of the criterium which is or according to the respective litera (sublitera) of sub-para I would be relevant for the delimitation of the competence for execution of the Federation from the one of the Laender, then from the seat of the tenderee, then from the focal location of the business activity of tenderee, then from the seat (main residence) of the awarding institution; if, however, the competence can thus not be determined, the participating Land is competent which at the time of the institution of the award procedure is or has most recently been chairing the Federal Council.

1803. Business of the Laender is the legislation and execution in the matters of review in the frame of awarding of contracts by tenderees in the sense of para 2 subpara 2.

1814. The Federation has to grant the Laender opportunity to participate in the preparation of draft bills in the matters of para 1. Federal laws under para 1 to be promulgated, governing matters whose execution is business of the Laender, may only be published upon approval of the Laender.

1825. Execution ordinances to Federal laws under para 1 promulgated are to be issued by the Federation, to the extent these laws do not provide otherwise. Para 4 is to be applied according to such execution ordinances.

1836. The administrative authorities competent for the implementation of the review procedure may also be appointed to control the highest authorities of execution, the municipalities and municipal associations and private persons and entities named in Art. 19 para 1 by law.

184Art 15

1851. In so far as a matter is not expressly assigned by the Federal Constitution to the Federation for legislation or also execution, it remains within the Laender's autonomous sphere of competence.

1862. In matters of local public security administration, that is that part of public security administration which exclusively or preponderantly affects the interests of the local community personified by the municipality and which, like preservation of public decency and defence against the improper creation of noise, can suitably be undertaken by the community within its local boundaries, the Federation has authority to supervise the conduct of these matters by the municipality and to redress any observed shortcomings by instructions to the Governor (Art. 103) . Inspectoral authorities of the Federation can for this purpose be delegated to the municipality; in each and every case the Governor shall be informed hereof.

1873. The provisions of Laender legislation in matters pertaining to theatres and cinemas, public shows, performances and entertainments shall assign to the Federal police directorates within their local sphere of competence at least the superintendence of the events, in so far as this does not extend to technical operation, building police and fire police considerations, and the participation by the administration in the initial stage of grant of licences as stipulated by such legislation.

1884. To what extent the Federal police directorates shall within their local sphere of competence be assigned executive responsibility in the domain of the road police, except the local traffic police (Art. 118 para 3 subpara 4) and the river and navigation police on the Danube, Lake Constance, Lake Neusiedl, and boundary stretches of other frontier waters, shall be prescribed in corresponding laws of the Federation and the Land concerned.

1895. In so far as executive acts in building matters concern Federal-owned buildings which serve public purposes, like accommodation for Federal authorities and offices or public institutions including herein also schools and hospitals or barracks quarters for members of the Army or other Federal employees, these executive acts fall under the indirect Federal administration; the final decision on appeals rests with the Governor. Nevertheless determination of alignment and level in these cases too falls under the executive power of the Land.

1906. In so far as only legislation as regards principles has been reserved to the Federation, detailed implementation within the framework laid down by Federal law is incumbent on Land legislatures. The Federal law can fix for the issue of the implementing legislation a deadline which may not, without the consent of the Federal Council, be shorter than six months and not longer than one year. If a Land does not observe this deadline, competence for the issue of the implementing legislation passes from that Land to the Federation. As soon as the Land has issued the implementing legislation, the Federal implementing legislation becomes invalidated. If the Federation has not established any principles, Land legislation is free to settle such matters. As soon as the Federation has established principles, the provisions of Land legislation shall within the deadline to be appointed by Federal law be adjusted to the legislation as regards the

1917. If an executive act on the part of one Land in matters covered by Arts. 11, 12, 14 paras 2 und 3, and 14a paras 3 und 4 is to become effective in several Laender, the participating Laender shall take the lead in reaching an agreed basis. If within six months from the legal business arising no agreed ruling has been laid down, the competence for such an act passes, upon request by one of the Laender or one of the parties participating in the matter, to the competent Federal Ministry. The details can be settled by Federal laws promulgated under Arts. 11, 12, 14 paras 2 und 3, and 14a paras 3 und 4.

1928. In matters reserved to Federal legislation in conformity with Arts. 11 and 12, the Federation is entitled to control the observance of the regulations it has issued.

1939. Within the scope of their legislation Laender are authorized to make necessary provisions also in the field of criminal and civil law to regulate a matter.

19410. Land legislation which alters or settles along new lines the existent organization of the ordinary public administration in the Laender, may only be promulgated with the consent of the Federal Government.

195Art 15a

1961. The Federation and the Laender may conclude agreements among themselves about matters within their respective sphere of competence. The conclusion of such agreements in the name of the Federation is, depending on the subject, incumbent on the Federal Government or the Federal Ministers. Agreements which are to be binding also on the authorities of the Federal legislature can be concluded by the Federal Government only with the approval of the National Council. Art. 50 para 3 shall by analogy be applied to such resolutions of the National Council; they shall be published in the Federal Law Gazette.

1972. Agreements between the Laender can only be made about matters pertaining to their autonomous sphere of competence and must without delay be brought to the Federal Government's knowledge.

1983. The principles of international law concerning treaties shall apply to agreements within the meaning of para I above. The same holds good for agreements within the meaning of para 2 above save as provided otherwise by corresponding constitutional laws of the Laender in question.

199Art 16

2001. In matters within their own sphere of competence the Laender can conclude treaties with states, or their constituent states, bordering on Austria.

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