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Constitution of The Bahamas (1973, rev. 2002)

1The following text is from the Constitute Project, who through a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, has generously made this content available for use for noncommercial purposes. Follow (right-click) the links and read the annotation to learn more. 1

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3Preamble

4Whereas Four hundred and eighty-one years ago the rediscovery of this Family of Islands, Rocks and Cays heralded the rebirth of the New World;

5And Whereas the People of this Family of Islands recognizing that the preservation of their Freedom will be guaranteed by a national commitment to Self-discipline, Industry, Loyalty, Unity and an abiding respect for Christian values and the Rule of Law;

6Now Know Ye Therefore:

7We the Inheritors of and Successors to this Family of Islands, recognizing the Supremacy of God and believing in the Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the Individual, Do Hereby Proclaim in Solemn Praise the Establishment of a Free and Democratic Sovereign Nation founded on Spiritual Values and in which no Man, Woman or Child shall ever be Slave or Bondsman to anyone or their Labour exploited or their Lives frustrated by deprivation, and do Hereby Provide by these Articles for the indivisible Unity and Creation under God of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas.

8CHAPTER I. THE CONSTITUTION

91. The State.

10The Commonwealth of the Bahamas shall be a sovereign democratic State.

112. The Constitution is supreme law.

12This Constitution is the supreme law of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas and, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution, this Constitution, shall prevail and the other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.

13CHAPTER II. CITIZENSHIP

143. Persons who become citizens on 10th July 1973.

151. Every person who, having been born in the former Colony of the Bahamas Islands, is on 9th July 1973 a citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies shall become a citizen of the Bahamas on 10th July 1973.

162. Every person who, having been born outside the former Colony of the Bahamas Islands, is on 9th July 1973 a citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies shall, if his father becomes or would but for his death have become a citizen of The Bahamas in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, become a citizen of The Bahamas on 10th July 1973.

173. Every person who on 9th July 1973 is a citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies having become such a citizen under the British Nationality Act 1948 by virtue of his having been registered in the former Colony of the Bahamas Islands under that Act shall become a citizen of The Bahamas on 10th July 1973:

18Provided that this paragraph shall not apply to any citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies

19 a.who was not ordinarily resident in that Colony on 31st December 1972, or

20 b.who became registered in that Colony on or after 1st January 1973, or

21 c.who on 9th July 1973 possesses the citizenship or nationality of some other country.

224. Persons who become citizens on 9th July 1974.

23Every person who on 9th July 1973 is a citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies-

24 a.having become such a citizen under the British Nationality Act 1948 by virtue of his having been naturalized in the former Colony of the Bahamas Islands before that Act came into force, or

25 b.having become such a citizen by virtue of his having been naturalized in the former Colony of the Bahamas Islands under that Act,

26shall become a citizen of The Bahamas on 9th July 1974, unless prior to that date, he has in such manner as may be prescribed declared that he does not desire to become a citizen of The Bahamas:

27Provided that this section shall not apply to a citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies who on 9th July 1973 possesses the citizenship or nationality of some other country.

285. Persons entitled to be registered as citizens.

291. Any woman who, on 9th July 1973, is or has been married to a person-

30 a.who becomes a citizen of The Bahamas by virtue of Article 3 of this Constitution; or

31 b.who, having died before 10th July 1973, would, but for his death, have become a citizen of The Bahamas by virtue of that Article, shall be entitled, upon making application and upon taking the oath of allegiance or such declaration in such manner as may be prescribed, to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas:

32Provided that the right to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas under this paragraph shall be subject to such exceptions or qualifications as may be prescribed in the interests of national security or public policy.

332. Any person who, on 9th July 1973, possesses Bahamian Status under the provisions of the Immigration Act 1967 [FN: Statue Law of the Bahama Islands. No. 25 of 1967.] and is ordinarily resident in the Bahamas Islands, shall be entitled, upon making application before 19th July 1974, to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas.

343. Notwithstanding anything contained in paragraph (2) of this Article, a person who has attained the age of eighteen years or who is a woman who is or has been married shall not, if he is a citizen of some country other than The Bahamas, be entitled to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas under the provisions of that paragraph unless he renounces his citizenship of that other country, takes the oath of allegiance and makes and registers such declarations may be prescribed:

35Provided that where a person cannot renounce his citizenship of the other country under the law of that country he may instead make such declaration concerning that citizenship as may be prescribed.

364. Any application for registration under paragraph (2) of this Article shall be subject to such exceptions or qualifications as may be prescribed in the interest of national security or public policy.

375. Any woman who on 9th July 1973 is or has been married to a person who subsequently becomes a citizen of The Bahamas by registration under paragraph (2) of this Article shall be entitled, upon making application and upon taking the oath of allegiance or such declaration as may be prescribed, to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas:

38Provided that the right to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas under this paragraph shall be subject to such exceptions or qualifications as may be prescribed in the interests of national security or public policy.

396. Any application for registration under this Article shall be made in such manner as may be prescribed as respects that application:

40Provided that such an application may not be made by a person who has not attained the age of eighteen year and is not a woman who is or has been married, but shall be made on behalf of that person by a parent or guardian of that person.

416. Persons born in The Bahamas after 9th July 1973.

42Every person born in The Bahamas after 9th July 1973 shall be come a citizen of The Bahamas at the date of his birth if at that date either of his parents is a citizen of The Bahamas.

437. Persons born in The Bahamas after 9th July 1973 of non citizen parents.

441. A person born in The Bahamas after 9th July 1973 neither of whose parents is a citizen of The Bahamas shall be entitled, upon making application on his attaining the age of eighteen years or within twelve months thereafter in such manner as may be prescribed, to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas:

45Provided that if he is a citizen of some country other than The Bahamas he shall not be entitled to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas under this Article unless he renounces his citizenship of that other country, takes the oath of allegiance and makes and registers such declaration of his intentions concerning residence as may be prescribed.

462. Any application for registration under this Article shall be subject to such exceptions or qualifications as may be prescribed in the interests of national security or public policy.

478. Persons born outside The Bahamas after 9th July 1973.

48A persons born outside The Bahamas after 9th July 1973 shall become a citizen of The Bahamas at the date of his birth if at that date his father is a citizen of The Bahamas otherwise than by virtue of this Article or Article 3(2) of this Constitution.

499. Further provisions for persons born outside The Bahamas after 9th July 1973.

501. Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 8 of this Constitution, a person born legitimately outside The Bahamas after 9th July 1973 whose mother is a citizen of The Bahamas shall be entitled, upon making application on his attaining the age of eighteen years and before he attains the age of twenty-one years, in such manner as may be prescribed, to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas:

51Provided that if he is a citizen of some country other than The Bahamas he shall not be entitled to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas under this Article unless he renounces his citizenship of that other country, takes the oath of allegiance and makes and registers such declaration of his intentions concerning residence as may be prescribed.

522. Where a person cannot renounce his citizenship of some other country under the law of that country, he may instead make such declaration concerning that citizenship as may be prescribed.

533. Any application for registration under this Article shall be subject to such exceptions or qualifications as may be prescribed in the interests of national security or public policy.

5410. Marriage to citizens of The Bahamas.

55Any woman who, after 9th July 1973, marries a person who is or becomes a citizen of The Bahamas shall be entitled, provided she is still so married, upon making application in such manner as may be prescribed and upon taking the oath of allegiance of such declaration as may be prescribed, to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas:

56Provided that the right to be registered as a citizen of The Bahamas under this Article shall be subject to such exceptions or qualifications as may be prescribed in the interests of national security of public policy.

5711. Deprivation of citizenship.

581. If the Governor-General is satisfied that any citizen of The Bahamas has at any time after 9th July 1973 acquired by registration, naturalization or other voluntary and formal act (other than marriage) the citizenship of any other country any rights available to him under the law of that country, being rights accorded exclusively to its citizens, the Governor-General may by order deprive that person of his citizenship.

592. If the Governor-General is satisfied that any citizen of The Bahamas has at any time after 9th July 1973 voluntarily claimed and exercised in any other country any rights available to him under the law of that country, being rights accorded exclusively to its citizens, the Governor-General may by order deprive that person of his citizenship.

6012. Renunciation of citizenship.

61Any citizen of The Bahamas who has attained the age of twenty-one years and who-

62 a.is also a citizen or national of any other country; or

63 b.intends to become a citizen or national of any other country,

64shall be entitled to renounce his citizenship of The Bahamas by a declaration made and registered in such manner as may be prescribed:

65Provided that-

66 a.in the case of a person who is not a citizen or national of any other country at the date of registration of his declaration or renunciation, if he does not become such a citizen or national within six months from the date of registration he shall be, and shall be deemed to have remained, a citizen of The Bahamas notwithstanding the making and registration of his declaration of his declaration of renunciation; and

67 b.the right of any person to renounce his citizenship of The Bahamas during any period when The Bahamas is engaged in any war shall be subject to such exceptions or qualification as may be prescribed in the interests of national security or public policy.

6813. Power of Parliament.

69Parliament may make provision-

70 a.for the acquisition of citizenship of The Bahamas by persons who do not become citizens of The Bahamas by virtue of the provisions of this Chapter;

71 b.for depriving of his citizenship of The Bahamas any person who is a citizen of The Bahamas otherwise than by virtue of paragraphs (1) or (2) of Articles 6 or 8 of this Constitution; or

72 c.for the certification of citizenship of The Bahamas for persons who have acquired that citizenship and who desire such certification.

7314. Interpretation.

741. Any reference in this Chapter to the father of a person shall, in relation to any person born out of wedlock other than a person legitimated before 10th July 1973, be construed as a reference to the mother of that person.

752. For the purposes of this Chapter, a person born aboard a registered ship or aircraft, or aboard an unregistered ship or aircraft of the government of any country, shall be deemed to have been born in the place in which the ship or aircraft was registered or, as the case may be, in that country.

763. Any reference in this Chapter to the national status of the father of a person at the time of that person's birth, shall, in relation to a person born after the death of the father, be construed as a reference to the national status of the father at the time of the father's death; and where that death occurred before 10th July 1973 and the birth occurred after 9th July 1973 the national status that the father would have had if he had died on 10th July 1973 shall be deemed to be his national status at the time of his death.

77CHAPTER III. PROTECTION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS OF THE INDIVIDUAL

7815. Fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual.

79Whereas every person in The Bahamas is entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, has the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the public interest, to each and all of the following, namely-

80 a.life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;

81 b.freedom of conscience, of expression and of assembly and association; and

82 c.protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation, the subsequent provisions of this Chapter shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to the aforesaid rights and freedoms subject to such limitations of that protection as are contained in those provisions, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.

8316. Protection of right to life.

841. No person shall be deprived intentionally of his life save in execution of the sentence of a court in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted.

852. A person shall not be regarded as having been deprived of his life in contravention of this Article if he dies as the result of the use, to such extent and in such circumstances as are permitted by law, of such force as is reasonably justifiable-

86 a.for the defence of any person from violence or for the defence of property;

87 b.in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained;

88 c.for the purpose of suppressing a riot, insurrection or mutiny; or

89 d.in order to prevent the commission by that person of a criminal offence.

90or if he dies as a result of a lawful act of war.

9117. Protection from inhuman treatment.

921. No person shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

932. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that the law in question authorizes the infliction of any description of punishment that was lawful in the Bahamas Islands immediately before 10th July 1973.

9418. Protection from slavery and forced labour.

951. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.

962. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.

973. For the purposes of this Article, "forced labour" does not include-

98 a.any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;

99 b.any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service in a naval, military or air force, any labour which that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;

100 c.labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained which, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place in which he is detained; or

101 d.any labour required during a period of public emergency (that is to say, a period to which Article 29 of this Constitution applies) or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable, in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.

10219. Protection from arbitrary arrest or detention.

1031. No person shall be deprived of his personal liberty save as may be authorized by law in any of the following cases-

104 a.in execution of the sentence or order of a court, whether established for The Bahamas or some other country, in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted or in consequence of his unfitness to plead to a criminal charge or in execution of the order of a court on the grounds of his contempt of that court or of another court or tribunal;

105 b.in execution of the order of a court made in order to secure the fulfillment of any obligation imposed upon him by law;

106 c.for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court;

107 d.upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or of being about to commit, a criminal offence;

108 e.in the case of a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years, for the purpose of his education or welfare;

109 f.for the purpose of preventing the spread of an infectious or contagious disease or in the case of a person who is, or is reasonably suspected to be, of unsound mind, addicted to drugs or alcohol, or a vagrant, for the purpose of his case or treatment of the protection of the community;

110 g.for the purpose of preventing the unlawful entry of that person into The Bahamas or for the purpose of effecting the expulsion, extradition or other lawful removal from the Bahamas of that person or the taking of proceedings relating thereto; and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, a law may, for the purposes of this subparagraph, provide that a person who is not a citizen of The Bahamas may be deprived of this liberty to such extent as may be necessary in the execution of a lawful order requiring that person to remain within a specified area within The Bahamas or prohibiting him from being within such an area.

1112. Any person who is arrested or detained shall be informed as soon as is reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands, of the reason for his arrest or detention and shall be permitted, at his own expense, to retain and instruct without delay a legal representative of his own choice and to hold private communication with him; and in the case of a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years he shall also be afforded a reasonable opportunity for communication with his parent or guardian.

1123. Any person who is arrested or detained in such a case as is mentioned in subparagraph (1)(c) or (d) of this Article and who is not released shall be brought without undue delay before a court; and if any person arrested or detained in such a case as is mentioned in the said sub-paragraph (1)(d) is not tried within a reasonable time he shall (without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against him) be released either unconditionally or upon reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears at a later date for trial of for proceedings preliminary to trial.

1134. Any person who is unlawfully arrested or detained by any other persons hall be entitled to compensation therefor from that other person.

1145. Where a person is detained by virtue of such a law as is referred to in Article 29 of this Constitution, the following provisions shall apply-

115 a.he shall, as soon as reasonably practicable and in any case not more than five days after the commencement of his detention, be furnished with a statement in writing, in a language that he understands, of the grounds upon which he is detained;

116 b.not more than fourteen days after the commencement of his detention, a notification shall be published in the Gazette stating that he has been detained and giving particulars of the provisions of law under which his detention is authorized;

117 c.he may from time to time request that his case be reviewed under sub-paragraph (d) of this paragraph but, where he has made such a request, no subsequent request shall be made before the expiration of three months from the making of the previous request;

118 d.where a request is made under sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph, the case shall, within one month of the making of the request, be reviewed by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law, presided over by the Chief Justice or another Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by him, and consisting of persons who are Justices of the Supreme Court or who are qualified to be appointed as Justices of the Supreme Court:

119 e.he shall be afforded reasonable facilities to consult and instruct, at his own expense, a legal representative of his own choice, and he and any such legal representative shall be permitted to make written or oral representations or both to the tribunal appointed for the review of his case.

1206. On any review by a tribunal in pursuance of paragraph (5) of this Article of the case of any detained person, the tribunal may make recommendations concerning the necessity or expediency of continuing his detention to the authority by whom it was ordered, but unless it is otherwise provided by law, that authority shall not be obliged to act in accordance with any such recommendations.

1217. When any person is detained by virtue of such a law as is referred to in Article 29 of this Constitution the Prime Minister of a Minister authorized by him shall, not more than thirty days after the commencement of the detention and thereafter no more than thirty days after the making of the previous report, make a report to each House stating the number of persons detained as aforesaid and the number of cases in which the authority that ordered the detention has not acted in accordance with the recommendations of a tribunal appointed in pursuance of paragraph 85) of this Article:

122Provided that in reckoning any period of thirty days for the purposes of this paragraph no account shall be taken of any period during which parliament stands prorogued or dissolved.

12320. Provisions to secure protection of law.

1241. If any person is charged with a criminal offence, then unless the charge is withdrawn, the case shall be afforded a fair hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial court established by law.

1252. Every person who is charged with a criminal offence-

126 a.shall be presumed to be innocent until he is proved or has pleaded guilty;

127 b.shall be informed as soon as reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands and in detail, of the nature of the offence charged;

128 c.shall be given adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;

129 d.shall be permitted to defend himself before the court in person or, at his own expense, by a legal representative of his own choice or by a legal representative at the public expense where so provided by or under a law in force in The Bahamas;

130 e.shall be afforded facilities to examine in person or by his legal representative the witnesses called by the prosecution before the court, ad to obtain the attendance and carry out the examination of witnesses to testify on hi behalf before the court on the same condition as those applying to witnesses called by the prosecution;

131 f.shall be permitted to have without payment the assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand the language used at the trial of the charge; and

132 g.shall, when charged on information in the Supreme Court, have the right to trial by jury;

133and except with his own consent the trial shall not take place in his absence unless he so conduct himself in the court as to render the continuance of the proceedings in his presence impracticable and the court has ordered him to be removed and the trial to proceed in his absence.

1343. When a person is tried for any criminal offence, the accused person or any person authorized by him in that behalf shall, if he so requires and subject to payment of such reasonable fee as may be prescribed by law, be given within a reasonable time after judgment a copy for the use of the accused person of any record of the proceedings made by or on behalf of the court.

1354. No person shall be held to be guilty of a criminal offence on account of any act or omission that did not, at the time it took place, constitute such an offence that is severer in degree or description than the maximum penalty that might have been imposed for that offence at the time when it was committed.

1365. No person who shows that he has been tried by a competent court for a criminal offence and either convicted or acquitted shall again be tried for that offence or for any other criminal offence of which he could have been convicted at the trial for that offence, save upon the order of a superior court in the course of appeal or review proceedings relating to the conviction or acquittal.

1376. No person shall be tried for a criminal offence if he shows that he has been pardoned for that offence.

1387. No person who is tried for a criminal offence shall be compelled to give evidence at the trial.

1398. Any court or other adjudicating authority prescribed by law for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right of obligation shall be established by law and shall be independent and impartial; and where proceedings for such a determination are institute by any person before such a court or other adjudicating authority, the case shall be given a fair hearing within a reasonable time.

1409. All proceeding instituted in any court for the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obligation, including the announcement of the decision of the court, shall be held in public,

14110. Nothing in paragraph (9) of this Article shall prevent the court from excluding from the proceedings persons other than the parties thereto and their legal representatives to such extent as the court-

142 a.may be empowered by law so to do and may consider necessary or expedient in circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice, or in interlocutory proceedings or in the interests of public morality, the welfare of persons under the age of eighteen years of the protection of the private live of persons concerned in the proceedings;

143 b.may be empowered or required by law to do so in the interests of defence, public safety of public order; or

144 c.may be empowered or required to do so by rules of court and practice existing immediately before 10th July 1973 of by any law made subsequently to the extent that it makes provisions substantially to the same effect as provision contained in any such rules.

14511. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of-

146 a.sub-paragraph (2)(a) of this Article to the extent that the law in question imposes upon any person charged with a criminal offence the burden of proving particular facts;

147 b.sub-paragraph (2)(e) of this Article to the extent that the law in question imposes conditions that must be satisfied if witnesses called to testify on behalf of an accused person are to be paid their expenses out of public funds;

148 c.paragraph (5) of this Article to the extent that the law in question authorizes a court to try a member of a disciplined force for a criminal offence notwithstanding any trial and conviction or acquittal of that member under the disciplinary law of that force, so, however, that any court so trying such a member and convicting him shall in sentencing him to any punishment take into account any punishment awarded him under that disciplinary law.

14921. Protection for privacy of home and other property.

1501. Except with his consent, no person shall be subjected to the search of his person or his property of the entry by others on his premises.

1512. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that the law in question makes provisions-

152 a.which is reasonably required-

153 i.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town and country planning, he development of mineral resources, or the development of utilization of nay other property in such a manner as to promote the public benefit; or

154 ii.for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms other persons;

155 b.to enable an officer or agent of the Government of The Bahamas, a local government authority or a body corporate established by law for public purposes to enter on the premises of any person in order to inspect those premises or anything thereon for the purpose of any tax, rate or due or in order to carry out work connected with any property that is lawfully on those premises and the belongs to that Government, authority or body corporate, as the case may be; or

156 c.to authorize, for the purpose of enforcing the judgment or order of a court in any civil proceedings, the search of any person or property by order of a court or the entry upon any premises by such order,

157and except so far as that provisions or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

15822. Protection of freedom of conscience.

1591. Except with his consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of conscience, and for the purposes of this Article the said freedom includes freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others, and both in public and in private, to manifest and propagate his religion of belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance.

1602. Except with his consent (or, if he is a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years, the consent of his guardian) no person attending any place of education shall be required to receive religious instruction or to take part in or attend any religious ceremony or observance of that instruction, ceremony or observance relates to a religion other than his own.

1613. No religious body or denomination shall be prevented from or hindered in providing religious instruction for persons of that body of denomination in the course of any education provided by that body or denomination whether or not that body or denomination is in receipt of any government subsidy, grant or other form of financial assistance designed to meet, in whole or in part, the cost of such course of education.

1624. No person shall be compelled to take any oath which is contrary to his religion or belief of to take any oath in a manner which is contrary to his religion or belief.

1635. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that the law in question makes provision which is reasonably required-

164 a.in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or

165 b.for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons, including the right to observe and practice any religion without the unsolicited interference of member of any other religion,

166and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

16723. Protection of freedom of expression.

1681. Except with his consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression, and for the purposes of this Article the said freedom includes freedom to hold opinions, to receive and impart ideas and information without interference, and freedom from interference with his correspondence.

1692. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that the law in question makes provision-

170 a.which is reasonably required-

171 i.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or

172 ii.for the purposes of protecting the rights, reputations and freedoms of other persons, preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, maintaining the authority and independence of the courts, or regulating telephony, telegraphy, posts, wireless broadcasting, television, public exhibitions or public entertainment; or

173 b.which imposes restrictions upon persons holding office under the Crown or upon members of a disciplined force,

174and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

17524. Protection of freedom of assembly and association.

1761. Except with his consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of peaceful assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to political parties, or to form or belong to trade unions or other association for the protection of his interests.

1772. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that the law in question makes provision-

178 a.which is reasonably required-

179 i.in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or public health; or

180 ii.for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons; or

181 b.which imposes restriction upon person s holding office under the Crown or upon members of a discipline force,

182and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

18325. Protection of freedom of movement.

1841. Except with his consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of movement, and for the purposes of this Article the said freedom means the right to move freely throughout The Bahamas, the right to reside in any part thereof, the right to enter The Bahamas, the right to leave The Bahamas and immunity from expulsion therefrom.

1852. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that the law in question makes provision-

186 a.which is reasonably required-

187 i.in the interests of defence, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town and country planning of the prevention of plant or animal diseases; or

188 ii.for the purpose of protecting the rights and freedoms of other persons,

189 and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society;

190 b.for the removal of a person from The Bahamas to be tried outside The Bahamas for a criminal offence or to undergo imprisonment in some other country in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted;

191 c.for the imposition of restriction upon the movement of residence within The Bahamas of public officers or member of a disciplined force that are reasonably required for the purpose of the proper performance of their functions; or

192 d.for the imposition of restriction on the right of any person to leave The Bahamas of any person who is not a citizen of The Bahamas or the exclusion or expulsion therefrom of any such person; or

193 e.for the imposition of restrictions on the right of any person to leave The Bahamas in the public interest, or for securing compliance with any international obligation of the Government of The Bahamas particulars of which have been laid before Parliament.

1943. Any restriction on a person's freedom of movement which is involved in his lawful detention shall not be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article.

1954. For the purposes of sub-paragraph (c) of paragraph (2) of this Article "law" in that paragraph includes directions in writing regarding the conduct of public officers generally of any class of public officer issued by the Government of The Bahamas.

19626. Protection from discrimination on the grounds of race, etc.

1971. Subject to the provision of paragraph (4), (5) and (9) of this Article no law shall make any provision which is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

1982. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs (6), (9) and (10) of this Article, no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting by virtue of any written law or in the performance of the function of any public office or any public authority.

1993. In this Article, the expression "discriminatory" means affording different treatment to different person attributable wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, place of origin political opinions colour or creed whereby person of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which person of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.

2004. Paragraph (1) of this Article shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

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