James Madison was not the sole author of these resolutions that Randolph would present. The Virginia delegation had arrived in Philadelphia by May 13, and its seven members began to discuss the issues before May 29. However, Madison played an instrumental role in developing these proposals, because he had been studying the issues and writing his colleagues about these concepts.
As early as 1786, Madison had studied the history of confederacies and wrote the Notes on Ancient and Modern Confederacies in the spring/early summer of 1786. He then wrote the Vices of the Political System of the United States in April 1787, which outlined his thoughts on why the Articles of Confederation was a failure.